Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels
© Frode Bøhagen et al. 2007
Received: 26 October 2006
Accepted: 1 August 2007
Published: 28 August 2007
We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs) employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS) component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.
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