Cross-Layer Design and Analysis of Downlink Communications in Cellular CDMA Systems
© Jin Yuan Sun et al. 2006
Received: 1 October 2005
Accepted: 19 May 2006
Published: 31 July 2006
A cellular CDMA network with voice and data communications is considered. Focusing on the downlink direction, we seek for the overall performance improvement which can be achieved by cross-layer analysis and design, taking physical layer, link layer, network layer, and transport layer into account. We are concerned with the role of each single layer as well as the interaction among layers, and propose algorithms/schemes accordingly to improve the system performance. These proposals include adaptive scheduling for link layer, priority-based handoff strategy for network admission control, and an algorithm for the avoidance of TCP spurious timeouts at the transport layer. Numerical results show the performance gain of each proposed scheme over independent performance of an individual layer in the wireless mobile network. We conclude that the system performance in terms of capacity, throughput, dropping probability, outage, power efficiency, delay, and fairness can be enhanced by jointly considering the interactions across layers.
- Goldsmith AJ, Wicker SB: Design challenges for energy-constrained ad hoc wireless networks. IEEE Wireless Communications 2002,9(4):8–27. 10.1109/MWC.2002.1028874View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Alonso L, Agusti R: Automatic rate adaptation and energy-saving mechanisms based on cross-layer information for packet-switched data networks. IEEE Communications Magazine 2004,42(3):S15-S20.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yu F, Krishnamurthy V: Cross-layer QoS provisioning in packet wireless CDMA networks. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '05), May 2005, Seoul, Korea 5: 3354–3358.Google Scholar
- Price J, Javidi T: Cross-layer (MAC and transport) optimal rate assignment in CDMA-based wireless broadband networks. Proceedings of the 38th Asilomar Conference on Signals, Systems and Computers, November 2004, Pacific Grove, Calif, USA 1: 1044–1048.Google Scholar
- Friderikos V, Wang L, Aghvami AH: TCP-aware power and rate adaptation in DS/CDMA networks. IEE Proceedings: Communications 2004,151(6):581–588. 10.1049/ip-com:20040466View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hossain E, Bhargava VK: Cross-layer performance in cellular WCDMA/3G networks: modelling and analysis. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '04), September 2004, Barcelona, Spain 1: 437–443.Google Scholar
- Yao J, Wong TC, Chew YH: Cross-layer design on the reverse and forward links capacities balancing in cellular CDMA systems. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '04), March 2004, New Orleans, La, USA 4: 2004–2009.Google Scholar
- Chan YS, Pei Y, Qu Q, Modestino JW: On cross-layer adaptivity and optimization for multimedia CDMA mobile wireless networks. Proceedings of the 1st IEEE-EURASIP International Symposium on Control, Communications, and Signal Processing (ISCCSP '04), March 2004, Hammamet, Tunisia 579–582.Google Scholar
- Singh S, Krishnamurthy V, Poor HV: Integrated voice/data call admission control for wireless DS-CDMA systems with fading. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2002,50(6):1483–1495. 10.1109/TSP.2002.1003071MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Comaniciu C, Poor HV: Jointly optimal power and admission control for delay sensitive traffic in CDMA networks with LMMSE receivers. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2003,51(8):2031–2042. 10.1109/TSP.2003.814467MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ghorashi SA, Wang L, Said F, Aghvami AH: Impact of macrocell-hotspot handover on cross-layer interference in multi-layer W-CDMA networks. Proceedings of the 5th European Personal Mobile Communications Conference (EPMCC '03), April 2003, Glasgow, UK 580–584.Google Scholar
- Jakes WC: Microwave Mobile Communications. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1993.Google Scholar
- Karakayali MK, Yates R, Razumov L: Throughput maximization on the downlink of a CDMA system. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '03), March 2003, New Orleans, La, USA 2: 894–901.
- Zhao D, Shen X, Mark JW: Effect of soft handoff on packet transmissions in cellular CDMA downlinks. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Parallel Architectures, Algorithms and Networks (I-SPAN '04), May 2004, Hong Kong 42–47.Google Scholar
- Kitazawa D, Chen L, Kayama H, Umeda N: Downlink packet-scheduling considering transmission power and QoS in CDMA packet cellular systems. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network (MWCN '02), September 2002, Stockholm, Sweden 183–187.Google Scholar
- Sheen W-H, Fu I-K, Lin KY: New load-based resource allocation algorithms for packet scheduling in CDMA uplink. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '04), March 2004, New Orleans, La, USA 4: 2268–2273.Google Scholar
- Novakovic DM, Dukic ML: Evolution of the power control techniques for DS-CDMA toward 3G wireless communication systems. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials 2000,3(4, fourth quarter):2–15.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Yoon J-H, Sheen M-J, Park S-C: Scheduling methods with transmit power constraint for CDMA packet services. Proceedings of the 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '03), April 2003, Jeju, Korea 2: 1450–1453.
- Wang X, Ramjee R, Viswanathan H: Adaptive and predictive downlink resource management in next generation CDMA networks. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Joint Conference of the IEEE Computer and Communications Societies (INFOCOM '04), March 2004, Hong Kong 4: 2754–2765.
- Chang JW, Sung DK: Adaptive channel reservation scheme for soft handoff in DS-CDMA cellular systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2001,50(2):341–353. 10.1109/25.923047View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sun JY, Zhao L, Anpalagan A: Soft handoff prioritizing algorithm for downlink call admission control of next-generation cellular CDMA networks. Proceedings of 16th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '05), September 2005, Berlin, Germany
- 3GPP TR 25.922 v3.6.0 : Radio resource management strategies. 2001.Google Scholar
- Garg VK: IS-95 CDMA and CDMA 2000: Cellular/PCs Systems Implementation. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1999.Google Scholar
- Viterbi A: CDMA Principles of Spread Spectrum Communications. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA; 1995.MATHGoogle Scholar
- 3GPP TS 25.331 : RRC protocol specification. 2000.Google Scholar
- Wong D, Lim TJ: Soft handoffs in CDMA mobile systems. IEEE Personal Communications 1997,4(6):6–17. 10.1109/98.637378View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- 3GPP TS 25.214 : Physical layer procedures (FDD) v3.1.0. 1999.Google Scholar
- Viterbi A, Viterbi AM, Gilhousen KS, Zehavi E: Soft handoff extends CDMA cell coverage and increases reverse link capacity. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1994,12(8):1281–1288. 10.1109/49.329346View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rege KM, Nanda S, Weaver CF, Peng W-C: Analysis of fade margins for soft and hard handoffs. Proceedings of the 6th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '95), September 1995, Toronto, Canada 2: 829–835.
- Sun JY, Peng YF, Zhao L: A novel packet scheduling scheme based on adaptive power/delay for efficient resource allocation in downlink CDMA systems. Proceedings of IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering (CCECE '05), May 2005, Saskatoon, Canada
- Jacobson V: Congestion avoidance and control. Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM, August 1988, Stanford, Calif, USA 273–288.
- Karn P, Partridge C: Improving round-trip time estimates in reliable transport protocols. ACM Transactions on Computer Systems 1991,9(4):364–373. 10.1145/118544.118549View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Bakre A, Badrinath BR: I-TCP: indirect TCP for mobile hosts. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS '95), May-June 1995, Vancouver, BC, Canada 136–146.
- Floyd S: TCP and explicit congestion notification. ACM Computer Communication Review 1994,24(5):10–23.MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lin S, Costello DJ: Error Control Coding: Fundamentals and Applications. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 1983.MATHGoogle Scholar
- Balakrishnan H, Padmanabhan VN, Seshan S, Katz RH: A comparison of mechanisms for improving TCP performance over wireless links. IEEE/ACM Transactions on Networking 1997,5(6):756–769. 10.1109/90.650137View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wu Y, Niu Z, Zheng J: A network-based solution for TCP in wireless systems with opportunistic scheduling. Proceedings of IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '04), September 2004, Barcelona, Spain 2: 1241–1245.
- Balakrishnan H, Seshan S, Katz RH: Improving reliable transport and handoff performance in cellular wireless networks. ACM Wireless Networks 1995,1(4):469–482. 10.1007/BF01985757View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Klein TE, Leung KK, Zheng H: Improved TCP performance in wireless IP networks through enhanced opportunistic scheduling algorithms. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '04), November-December 2004, Dallas, Tex, USA 5: 2744–2748.
- Stevens W: TCP Slow Start, Congestion Avoidance, Fast Retransmission, and Fast Recovery Algorithms. RFC-2001, January 1997
- WCDMA (UMTS): FDD technical summary http://www.umtsworld.com/technology/wcdma.htm
- W.E.A 3GPP 2 : 1xEV-DV evaluation methodology-addendum (v6). 2001.Google Scholar
- Xu F, Ye M-H, Zhao P, Zhang H-M: The research on the service rate adaptation in mobile network. Proceedings of International Conference on Communication Technology (ICCT '03), April 2003, Beijing, China 2: 970–976.
- Kazmi M, Wiberg N: Power and rate assignment policies for best-effort services in WCDMA. Proceedings of the 13th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '02), September 2002, Lisbon, Portugal 4: 1601–1605.
- Chen Y, Cuthbert LG: Downlink performance of different soft handover algorithms in 3G multi-service environments. Proceedings of the 4th IEEE International Workshop on Mobile and Wireless Communications Network (MWCN '02), September 2002, Stockholm, Sweden 406–410.
- Chen Y, Cuthbert L: Optimum size of soft handover zone in power-controlled UMTS downlink systems. IEE Electronics Letters 2002,38(2):89–90. 10.1049/el:20020057View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- The network simulator - ns-2 http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.