Open Access

On-Off Frequency-Shift Keying for Wideband Fading Channels

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20062006:098564

DOI: 10.1155/WCN/2006/98564

Received: 9 March 2005

Accepted: 15 September 2005

Published: 30 January 2006


-ary on-off frequency-shift keying (OOFSK) is a digital modulation format in which -ary FSK signaling is overlaid on on/off keying. This paper investigates the potential of this modulation format in the context of wideband fading channels. First, it is assumed that the receiver uses energy detection for the reception of OOFSK signals. Capacity expressions are obtained for the cases in which the receiver has perfect and imperfect fading side information. Power efficiency is investigated when the transmitter is subject to a peak-to-average power ratio (PAR) limitation or a peak power limitation. It is shown that under a PAR limitation, it is extremely power inefficient to operate in the very-low-SNR regime. On the other hand, if there is only a peak power limitation, it is demonstrated that power efficiency improves as one operates with smaller SNR and vanishing duty factor. Also studied are the capacity improvements that accrue when the receiver can track phase shifts in the channel or if the received signal has a specular component. To take advantage of those features, the phase of the modulation is also allowed to carry information.


Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University
Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Nebraska-Lincoln


  1. Akyildiz IF, Su W, Sankarasubramaniam Y, Cayirci E: A survey on sensor networks. IEEE Communications Magazine 2002,40(8):102-114. 10.1109/MCOM.2002.1024422View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Shannon CE: A mathematical theory of communication. Bell System Technical Journal 1948, 27: 379–423, 623-656.MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Golay MJE: Note on the theoretical efficiency of information reception with PPM. Proceedings of the IRE 1949., 37, pp. 1031:Google Scholar
  4. Turin GL:The asymptotic behavior of ideal -ary systems. Proceedings of the IRE 1959, 47: 93-94.Google Scholar
  5. Jacobs I:The asymptotic behavior of incoherent -ary communications systems. Proceedings of the IEEE 1963,51(1):251-252.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Pierce JR:Ultimate performance of -ary transmissions on fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1966,12(1):2-5. 10.1109/TIT.1966.1053859View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  7. Gallager RG: Information Theory and Reliable Communication. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1968.MATHGoogle Scholar
  8. Kennedy RS: Fading Dispersive Communication Channels. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 1969.Google Scholar
  9. Telatar IE, Tse DNC: Capacity and mutual information of wideband multipath fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2000,46(4):1384-1400. 10.1109/18.850678MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  10. Luo C, Médard M: Frequency-shift keying for ultrawideband—achieving rates of the order of capacity. Proc. 40th Annual Allerton Conference on Communication, Control, and Computing, October 2002, Monticello, Ill, USAGoogle Scholar
  11. Verdú S: Spectral efficiency in the wideband regime. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2002,48(6):1319-1343. 10.1109/TIT.2002.1003824View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  12. Médard M, Gallager RG: Bandwidth scaling for fading multipath channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2002,48(4):840-852. 10.1109/18.992769View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  13. Gursoy MC, Poor HV, Verdú S: The noncoherent Rician fading channel—Part II: Spectral efficiency in the low-power regime. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005,4(5):2207-2221.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Lun DS, Médard M, Abou-Faycal IC: On the performance of peaky capacity-achieving signaling on multipath fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2004,52(6):931-938. 10.1109/TCOMM.2004.829512View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Luo C, Médard M, Zheng L: Error exponents for multi-tone frequency shift keying on wideband Rayleigh fading channels. Proc. IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '03), December 2003, San Francisco, Calif, USA 2: 779-783.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Butman SA, Bar-David I, Levitt BK, Lyon RF, Klass MJ: Design criteria for noncoherent Gaussian channels with MFSK signaling and coding. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1976,24(10):1078-1088. 10.1109/TCOM.1976.1093213View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Stark WE: Capacity and cutoff rate of noncoherent FSK with nonselective Rician fading. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1985,33(11):1153-1159. 10.1109/TCOM.1985.1096232View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. Neeser FD, Massey JL: Proper complex random processes with applications to information theory. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1993,39(4):1293-1302. 10.1109/18.243446MathSciNetView ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. Abou-Faycal IC, Médard M, Madhow U: Binary adaptive coded pilot symbol assisted modulation over Rayleigh fading channels without feedback. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2005,53(6):1036-1046. 10.1109/TCOMM.2005.849998View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Padovani R, Wolf JK: Coded phase/frequency modulation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1986,34(5):446-453. 10.1109/TCOM.1986.1096564MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Ghareeb I, Yongacoglu A: Performance of joint frequency phase modulation over Rayleigh fading channels. IEE Proceedings. I, Communications, Speech and Vision 1994,141(4):241-247.Google Scholar
  22. Khalona RA, Atkin GE, LoCicero JL: On the performance of a hybrid frequency and phase shift keying modulation technique. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1993,41(5):655-659. 10.1109/26.225476View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  23. Hung F-C, Chung C-D, Chao Y-L: Coherent frequency/phase modulation scheme. IEE Proceedings. I, Communications, Speech and Vision 2002,149(1):36-44.Google Scholar
  24. Viterbi AJ:Performance of an -ary orthogonal communication system using stationary stochastic signals. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1967,13(3):414-422.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Butman SA, Klass MJ: Capacity of noncoherent channels. In Tech. Rep. 32-1526. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif, USA; vol. 18, pp. 85–93, September 1973Google Scholar
  26. Grimmett GR, Stirzaker DR: Probability and Random Processes. Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA; 1998.MATHGoogle Scholar


© M. C. Gursoy et al. 2006

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.