Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20082008:543290

  • Received: 1 October 2007
  • Accepted: 2 April 2008
  • Published:


The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.


  • Measured Data
  • Urban Environment
  • Carrier Frequency
  • Elevation Angle
  • Full Article

Publisher note

To access the full article, please see PDF

Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electromagnetic Field, Czech Technical University in Prague, Technicka 2 Street, 166 27 Praha 6, Czech Republic


© J. Holis and P. Pechac. 2008

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.