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Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment


The aim of this paper is to present the results of a measurement campaign focused on the evaluation of penetration loss into buildings in an urban area as a function of the elevation angle. An empirical model to predict penetration loss into buildings is developed based on measured data obtained using a remote-controlled airship. The impact on penetration loss of different buildings and user positions within the buildings is presented. The measured data are evaluated as a function of the elevation angle. The measurement campaign was carried out at 2.0 GHz and 3.5 GHz carrier frequencies, representing the frequency band for high altitude platform third-generation mobile systems and, potentially, next generation mobile systems, mobile WiMAX, for example, the new penetration loss model can be used for system performance simulations and coverage planning.

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Correspondence to Jaroslav Holis.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Holis, J., Pechac, P. Penetration Loss Measurement and Modeling for HAP Mobile Systems in Urban Environment. J Wireless Com Network 2008, 543290 (2008).

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  • Measured Data
  • Urban Environment
  • Carrier Frequency
  • Elevation Angle
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