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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Sensitivity of Multicarrier Two-Dimensional Spreading Schemes to Synchronization Errors

  • 1Email author,
  • 1,
  • 2 and
  • 2
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20082008:561869

  • Received: 12 July 2007
  • Accepted: 6 April 2008
  • Published:


This paper presents the impact of synchronization errors on the performance of a downlink multicarrier two-dimensional spreading OFDM-CDMA system. This impact is measured by the degradation of the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) obtained after despreading and equalization. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we use some properties of random matrix and free probability theories to derive a new expression of the SINR. This expression is then independent of the actual value of the spreading codes while still accounting for the orthogonality between codes. This model is validated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Secondly, the model is exploited to derive the SINR degradation of OFDM-CDMA systems due to synchronization errors which include a timing error, a carrier frequency offset, and a sampling frequency offset. It is also exploited to compare the sensitivities of MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA systems to these errors in a frequency selective channel. This work is carried out for zero-forcing and minimum mean square error equalizers.


  • Information System
  • Monte Carlo Simulation
  • Probability Theory
  • Sampling Frequency
  • System Application

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Authors’ Affiliations

CEA-LETI, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble Cedex 09, France
GIPSA-Lab/ DIS, INPG, BP 46, 38402 Saint Martin d'Hères, France


© Youssef Nasser et al. 2008

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.