- Research Article
- Open Access
Sensitivity of Multicarrier Two-Dimensional Spreading Schemes to Synchronization Errors
© Youssef Nasser et al. 2008
Received: 12 July 2007
Accepted: 6 April 2008
Published: 14 April 2008
This paper presents the impact of synchronization errors on the performance of a downlink multicarrier two-dimensional spreading OFDM-CDMA system. This impact is measured by the degradation of the signal to interference and noise ratio (SINR) obtained after despreading and equalization. The contribution of this paper is twofold. First, we use some properties of random matrix and free probability theories to derive a new expression of the SINR. This expression is then independent of the actual value of the spreading codes while still accounting for the orthogonality between codes. This model is validated by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Secondly, the model is exploited to derive the SINR degradation of OFDM-CDMA systems due to synchronization errors which include a timing error, a carrier frequency offset, and a sampling frequency offset. It is also exploited to compare the sensitivities of MC-CDMA and MC-DS-CDMA systems to these errors in a frequency selective channel. This work is carried out for zero-forcing and minimum mean square error equalizers.
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