Open Access

Botnet: Classification, Attacks, Detection, Tracing, and Preventive Measures

  • Jing Liu1,
  • Yang Xiao1Email author,
  • Kaveh Ghaboosi2,
  • Hongmei Deng3 and
  • Jingyuan Zhang1
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20092009:692654

Received: 25 December 2008

Accepted: 19 July 2009

Published: 13 September 2009


Botnets become widespread in wired and wireless networks, whereas the relevant research is still in the initial stage. In this paper, a survey of botnets is provided. We first discuss fundamental concepts of botnets, including formation and exploitation, lifecycle, and two major kinds of topologies. Several related attacks, detection, tracing, and countermeasures, are then introduced, followed by recent research work and possible future challenges.

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Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Computer Science, The University of Alabama
The Centre for Wireless Communications, University of Oulu
Intelligent Automation, Inc.


© Jing Liu et al. 2009

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.