Skip to main content

Botnet: Classification, Attacks, Detection, Tracing, and Preventive Measures


Botnets become widespread in wired and wireless networks, whereas the relevant research is still in the initial stage. In this paper, a survey of botnets is provided. We first discuss fundamental concepts of botnets, including formation and exploitation, lifecycle, and two major kinds of topologies. Several related attacks, detection, tracing, and countermeasures, are then introduced, followed by recent research work and possible future challenges.

Publisher note

To access the full article, please see PDF.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Yang Xiao.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Liu, J., Xiao, Y., Ghaboosi, K. et al. Botnet: Classification, Attacks, Detection, Tracing, and Preventive Measures. J Wireless Com Network 2009, 692654 (2009).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI:


  • Information System
  • Research Work
  • Wireless Network
  • Preventive Measure
  • System Application