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Effects of Carrier Frequency Offset, Timing Offset, and Channel Spread Factor on the Performance of Hexagonal Multicarrier Modulation Systems

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Hexagonal multicarrier modulation (HMM) system is the technique of choice to overcome the impact of time-frequency dispersive transmission channel. This paper examines the effects of insufficient synchronization (carrier frequency offset, timing offset) on the amplitude and phase of the demodulated symbol by using a projection receiver in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems. Furthermore, effects of CFO, TO, and channel spread factor on the performance of signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR) in hexagonal multicarrier modulation systems are further discussed. The exact SINR expression versus insufficient synchronization and channel spread factor is derived. Theoretical analysis shows that similar degradation on symbol amplitude and phase caused by insufficient synchronization is incurred as in traditional cyclic prefix orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (CP-OFDM) transmission. Our theoretical analysis is confirmed by numerical simulations in a doubly dispersive (DD) channel with exponential delay power profile and U-shape Doppler power spectrum, showing that HMM systems outperform traditional CP-OFDM systems with respect to SINR against ISI/ICI caused by insufficient synchronization and doubly dispersive channel.

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Correspondence to Kui Xu.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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  • Carrier Frequency
  • Carrier Frequency Offset
  • Cyclic Prefix
  • Doppler Power
  • Frequency Offset