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Table 1 Power densities of typical energy harvesters.

From: Design and Implementation of a Generic Energy-Harvesting Framework Applied to the Evaluation of a Large-Scale Electronic Shelf-Labeling Wireless Sensor Network

Energy source Characteristics Efficiency Power density
Light Outdoor 10–25% 100 mW/
  Indoor   100 W/
Thermal Human 0.1% 60 W/
  Industrial 3% 10 mW/
Vibration Hz-Human 25–50% 4 W/
  kHz-Machines   800 W/
Radio GSM 900 MHz 50% 0.1 W/
frequency WiFi 2.4 GHz   0.001 W/