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Table 1 The ECMP key features.

From: Modelling and Implementation of QoS in Wireless Sensor Networks: A Multiconstrained Traffic Engineering Model

() Use of a simple ad hoc routing protocol which creates a breadth-first spanning tree rooted at the sink through recursive broadcasting of routing update beacon messages and recording of parents.
() The beacon messages are () broadcasted at periodic intervals called epochs, () propagated progressively to neighbors, and () received by a few nodes which are in the vicinity of the source of the beacon message.
() The transmission of the beacon is build around a source marking, progressive propagation to neighbors and rebroadcasting progress which sets up a breadth-first spanning tree rooted at the sink.
() The energy-aware routing is integrated into the process by selecting a subset of neigbhors which is sorted by distance and includes only a minimum number of close neighbors. This subset excludes neighbors that largely increase the path set power consumption.