Open Access

Miracle: The Multi-Interface Cross-Layer Extension of ns2

  • Nicola Baldo1,
  • Marco Miozzo1Email author,
  • Federico Guerra2,
  • Michele Rossi2 and
  • Michele Zorzi2
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20102010:761792

Received: 15 June 2009

Accepted: 21 January 2010

Published: 21 March 2010


We present Miracle, a novel framework which extends ns2 to facilitate the simulation and the design of beyond 4G networks. Miracle enhances ns2 by providing an efficient and embedded engine for handling cross-layer messages and, at the same time, enabling the coexistence of multiple modules within each layer of the protocol stack. We also present a novel framework developed as an extension of Miracle called Miracle PHY and MAC. This framework facilitates the development of more realistic Channel, PHY and MAC modules, considering features currently lacking in most state-of-the-art simulators, while at the same time giving a strong emphasis on code modularity, interoperability and reusability. Finally, we provide an overview of the wireless technologies implemented in Miracle, discussing in particular the models for the IEEE 802.11, UMTS and WiMAX standards and for Underwater Acoustic Networks. We observe that, thanks to Miracle and its extensions, it is possible to carefully simulate complex network architectures at all the OSI layers, from the physical reception model to standard applications and system management schemes. This allows to have a comprehensive view of all the interactions among network components, which play an important role in many research areas, such as cognitive networking and cross-layer design.

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Authors’ Affiliations

Centre Tecnològic de Telecomunicacions de Catalunya, Castelldefels (Barcelona), Spain
Department of Information Engineering, University of Padova, Padova, Italy


© Nicola Baldo et al. 2010

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.