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Table 1 The definition of the notations.

From: A Forward Authentication Key Management Scheme for Heterogeneous Sensor Networks

The th cluster key of H-sensor
The pairwise key between L-sensor and H-sensor
The unique ID for H-sensor
The unique ID for L-sensor
The th key in the key-chain, where
A temporary session key for all H-sensors and L-sensors
A random number generated by H-sensor
The encryption of message with MAC using the key
The message is encrypted by
A collision-resistant cryptographic hash function
XOR operator
A concatenation operator