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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Secure Rateless Deluge: Pollution-Resistant Reprogramming and Data Dissemination for Wireless Sensor Networks

  • 1Email author,
  • 2,
  • 1,
  • 1 and
  • 3
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20102011:685219

  • Received: 24 February 2010
  • Accepted: 19 July 2010
  • Published:


A network reprogramming protocol is made for updating the firmware of a wireless sensor network (WSN) in situ. For security reasons, every firmware update must be authenticated to prevent an attacker from installing its code in the network. While existing schemes can provide authentication services, they are insufficient for a new generation of network coding-based reprogramming protocols like Rateless Deluge. We propose Secure Rateless Deluge or Sreluge, a secure version of Rateless Deluge that is resistant to pollution attacks (denial-of-service attacks aimed at polluting encoded packets). Sreluge employs a neighbor classification system and a time series forecasting technique to isolate polluters, and a combinatorial technique to decode data packets in the presence of polluters before the isolation is complete. For detecting polluters, Sreluge has zero false negative rate and a negligible false positive rate. TOSSIM simulations and experimental results show that Sreluge is practical.


  • Time Series
  • Wireless Sensor Network
  • False Positive Rate
  • System Application
  • Data Packet

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Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC, 3010, Australia
School of Computer Science, Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi'an, Shaanxi, 710072, China
Pervasive Systems Group, Faculty of EEMCS, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500, AE, Enschede, The Netherlands


© Yee Wei Law et al. 2011

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.