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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Spreading Sequence Design and Theoretical Limits for Quasisynchronous CDMA Systems

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20042004:724989

  • Received: 4 November 2003
  • Published:


For various quasisynchronous (QS) CDMA systems such as LAS-CDMA system which emerged recently, in order to reduce or eliminate the multiple access interference and multipath interference, it is required to design a set of spreading sequences which are mutually orthogonal within a designed shift zone, called orthogonal zone. For traditional orthogonal sequences, such as Walsh sequences and orthogonal Gold sequences, the orthogonality can only be achieved at the inphase point; in other words, the orthogonality is destroyed whenever there is a relative shift between the sequences, that is, their orthogonal zone is 0. In this paper, new concepts of generalized orthogonality (GO) and generalized quasiorthogonality (GQO) for spreading sequence design in both direct sequence (DS) QS-CDMA systems and time/frequency hopping (TH/FH) QS-CDMA systems are presented. Besides, selected GO/GQO sequence designs and general theoretical periodic and aperiodic limits, together with several applications in QS-CDMA systems, are also reviewed and analyzed.


  • sequences design
  • generalized orthogonality
  • generalized quasiorthogonality
  • sequence bounds