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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Adaptive Space-Time-Spreading-Assisted Wideband CDMA Systems Communicating over Dispersive Nakagami- Fading Channels

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20052005:364197

  • Received: 23 May 2004
  • Published:


In this contribution, the performance of wideband code-division multiple-access (W-CDMA) systems using space-time-spreading- (STS-) based transmit diversity is investigated, when frequency-selective Nakagami- fading channels, multiuser interference, and background noise are considered. The analysis and numerical results suggest that the achievable diversity order is the product of the frequency-selective diversity order and the transmit diversity order. Furthermore, both the transmit diversity and the frequency-selective diversity have the same order of importance. Since W-CDMA signals are subjected to frequency-selective fading, the number of resolvable paths at the receiver may vary over a wide range depending on the transmission environment encountered. It can be shown that, for wireless channels where the frequency selectivity is sufficiently high, transmit diversity may be not necessitated. Under this case, multiple transmission antennas can be leveraged into an increased bitrate. Therefore, an adaptive STS-based transmission scheme is then proposed for improving the throughput of W-CDMA systems. Our numerical results demonstrate that this adaptive STS-based transmission scheme is capable of significantly improving the effective throughput of W-CDMA systems. Specifically, the studied W-CDMA system's bitrate can be increased by a factor of three at the modest cost of requiring an extra 0.4 dB or 1.2 dB transmitted power in the context of the investigated urban or suburban areas, respectively.


  • CDMA
  • space-time spreading
  • Nakagami-m fading
  • transmit diversity

Authors’ Affiliations

School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton, SO17 1BJ, UK


© Yang and Hanzo 2005

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.