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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

New PN Even Balanced Sequences for Spread-Spectrum Systems

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20052005:140426

  • Received: 30 October 2003
  • Published:


A new class of pseudonoise even balanced (PN-EB) binary spreading sequences is derived from existing classical odd-length families of maximum-length sequences, such as those proposed by Gold, by appending or inserting one extra-zero element (chip) to the original sequences. The incentive to generate large families of PN-EB spreading sequences is motivated by analyzing the spreading effect of these sequences from a natural sampling point of view. From this analysis a new definition for PG is established, from which it becomes clear that very high processing gains (PGs) can be achieved in band-limited direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) applications by using spreading sequences with zero mean, given that certain conditions regarding spectral aliasing are met. To obtain large families of even balanced (i.e., equal number of ones and zeros) sequences, two design criteria are proposed, namely the ranging criterion (RC) and the generating ranging criterion (GRC). PN-EB sequences in the polynomial range are derived using these criteria, and it is shown that they exhibit secondary autocorrelation and cross-correlation peaks comparable to the sequences they are derived from. The methods proposed not only facilitate the generation of large numbers of new PN-EB spreading sequences required for CDMA applications, but simultaneously offer high processing gains and good despreading characteristics in multiuser SS scenarios with band-limited noise and interference spectra. Simulation results are presented to confirm the respective claims made.


  • even balanced spreading sequences
  • PN sequences
  • processing gain
  • direct-sequence spread spectrum

Authors’ Affiliations

Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores (INESC), Alves Redol 9, Lisboa Codex, 1000, Portugal
ENIDH, Avenida Bonneville Franco, Paço D'Arcos, Oeiras, 2780, Portugal
Instituto Superior Técnico (IST), Universidade Técnica de Lisboa, Avenida Rovisco Pais, Lisboa, 1000, Portugal
UNINOVA, Campus da FCT da UNL, Quinta da Torre, Monte da Caparica, Caparica, 2825 - 114, Portugal


© J.A.L. Inácio et al. 2005

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.