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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

A Receiver for Differential Space-Time -Shifted BPSK Modulation Based on Scalar-MSDD and the EM Algorithm

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20052005:135356

  • Received: 21 April 2004
  • Published:


In this paper, we consider the issue of blind detection of Alamouti-type differential space-time (ST) modulation in static Rayleigh fading channels. We focus our attention on a -shifted BPSK constellation, introducing a novel transformation to the received signal such that this binary ST modulation, which has a second-order transmit diversity, is equivalent to QPSK modulation with second-order receive diversity. This equivalent representation allows us to apply a low-complexity detection technique specifically designed for receive diversity, namely, scalar multiple-symbol differential detection (MSDD). To further increase receiver performance, we apply an iterative expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm which performs joint channel estimation and sequence detection. This algorithm uses minimum mean square estimation to obtain channel estimates and the maximum-likelihood principle to detect the transmitted sequence, followed by differential decoding. With receiver complexity proportional to the observation window length, our receiver can achieve the performance of a coherent maximal ratio combining receiver (with differential decoding) in as few as a single EM receiver iteration, provided that the window size of the initial MSDD is sufficiently long. To further demonstrate that the MSDD is a vital part of this receiver setup, we show that an initial ST conventional differential detector would lead to strange convergence behavior in the EM algorithm.


  • multiple-symbol differential detection
  • Alamouti modulation
  • differential space-time codes
  • EM algorithm

Authors’ Affiliations

School of Engineering Science, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC, V5A 1S6, Canada
School of Mechatronics Engineering, Changwon National University, Changwon Kyungnam, 641-773, Korea


© Riediger et al. 2005

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.