ASK R b = B ·log2M $2\cdot \frac{M-1}{M\cdot \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}\cdot Q\left(\frac{1}{M-1}\cdot \sqrt{SNR\cdot {\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}\right)$
PPM ${R}_{b}=\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}B\cdot \frac{\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}{M}$ $\frac{M}{2}\cdot Q\left(\sqrt{SNR\cdot \frac{M\cdot \phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}{\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}{2}}\right)$
DPPM $\overline{{R}_{b}}=2\cdot B\cdot \frac{{\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}{M+1}$ Variable symbol duration, refer to  for a detailed presentation
DPIM $\overline{{R}_{b}}=2\cdot B\cdot \frac{{\mathsf{\text{log}}}_{2}M}{M+3}$ Variable symbol duration, refer to  for a detailed presentation
1. Bandwidth B is the first-null bandwidth, SNR is the electrical signal-to-noise ratio and M is the number of chips that construct a symbol in PPM or the number of power levels in an ASK system. Function Q(x) is defined as$Q\left(x\right)=\frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi }}\cdot \underset{x}{\overset{\infty }{\int }}{e}^{-{u}^{2}\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}/\phantom{\rule{0.3em}{0ex}}2}\cdot du.$ 