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Table 1 The definition of state, action and cost

From: Cell range expansion using distributed Q-learning in heterogeneous networks

State pM: Received powers of the pilot signals from MBS.
  pP: Received powers of the pilot signals from PBS.
  UEs use the largest macro and pico ones.
Action b: The UE’s bias value
Cost n: The number of UEs that cannot get the radio service
  because of no spectrum vacancy or weak received power, referred to as outage UEs.
  Using the backhaul between BSs, we can calculate this number and broadcast it to UEs.