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Table 4 Candidate communication technologies customer-to-grid interaction for garage charging

From: A survey on communication technologies and requirements for internet of electric vehicles

Technology Pros Cons
Power line communications Every EV owner has an access. Easy penetration Indoor applications are not allowed in every country. Regulatory and technical issues
White-space networking High penetration and coverage Require technologies to operate at varying bandwidths
Utility-owned wired infrastructure Full control over the network. No need for interoperability among various standards Very high cost and cost of ownership is not clear
Fixed broadband Low cost (customers already have it) Level of broadband deployment can be problematic
Wireless cellular networks Easy adoption with already existing structure Coverage is limited in developing countries
WiFi mesh network Low cost, unlicensed frequency band May require complex designs