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Table 1 Summary of the approach that was discussed

From: Energy optimisation of hybrid off-grid system for remote telecommunication base station deployment in Malaysia

Year of publication Hybrid resources Storage and support system Cellular generation Case study
2009 [14] Photovoltaic Battery GSM India
Wind Fuel cell
Diesel generator
2010 [9] Photovoltaic Battery GSM India
Wind Diesel generator UMTS
2012 [8] Photovoltaic Battery GSM India
Wind Polar DC generator CDMA
2012 [2] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Congo
Wind Diesel generator
2012 [12] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Bangladesh
Diesel generator
2013 [10] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Nigeria
Diesel generator
2013 [13] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Spain
Wind Diesel generator
2013 [6] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Nepal
Wind Fuel cell CDMA
Diesel generator
2013 [15] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Nigeria
Hydro turbine Diesel generator
2013 [11] Photovoltaic Battery GSM Pakistan
Diesel generator