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Table 3 Simulation setup of the SPV/DG hybrid system

From: Energy optimisation of hybrid off-grid system for remote telecommunication base station deployment in Malaysia

System components Parameters Value
Control parameters Annual real interest rate 3.25%
Project lifetime 20 years
Dispatch strategy Cyclic charging
Apply set point state of charge 80%
Operating reserve: as percent of load, hourly load 10%
Carbon emission penalty $2.25/t
Diesel price $0.7/L
SPV Sizes considered 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 kW
Operational lifetime 20 years
Efficiency 90%
System tracking Two axis
Capital cost $4/W
Replacement cost $4/W
O&M cost per year $0.01/W
DG Sizes considered 1, 2, 3, 4 kW
Operational lifetime 25,000 h
Intercept coeff. 0.08 L/h/kW
Capital cost $0.66/W
Replacement cost $0.66/W
O&M cost $0.05/h
Inverter Sizes considered 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2 kW
Efficiency 90%
Operational lifetime 15 years
Capital cost $0.9/W
Replacement cost $0.9/W
O&M cost per year $0.01/W
Trojan L16P battery Number of batteries 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8
Round trip efficiency 85%
Minimum state of charge 30%
Nominal voltage 6 V
Nominal current 360 Ah at 20 h
Nominal capacity 6 V × 360 Ah = 2.16 kWh
Lifetime throughput 1,075 kWh
Max. charge rate 1 A/Ah
Max. charge current 18 A
Self-discharge rate 0.1% per hour
Min. operational lifetime 5 years
Capital cost $300
Replacement cost $300
O&M cost per year $10