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Table 4 Summary of the technical and economic criteria for the optimal design of the hybrid SPV/DG system

From: Energy optimisation of hybrid off-grid system for remote telecommunication base station deployment in Malaysia

Energy model Economic factors DG factors
Daily solar SPV DG Battery Inverter Initial Operating NPC Diesel DG
(kWh/m 2 ) (kW) (kW) (unit) (kW) Capital ($/year) ($) (L) (h)
5.1 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,993 40,188 1,880 6,091
5.2 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,980 40,000 1,866 6,039
5.3 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,968 39,820 1,854 5,999
5.4 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,956 39,653 1,840 5,954
5.5 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,946 39,497 1,830 5,923