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Table 5 Summary of the technical and economic criteria for the optimal design of the hybrid SPV/DG system

From: Energy optimisation of hybrid off-grid system for remote telecommunication base station deployment in Malaysia

Energy model Economic factors DG factors
Daily solar SPV DG Battery Inverter Initial Operating ($/year) NPC ($) Diesel DG
(kWh/m 2 ) (kW) (kW) (unit) (kW) Capital (L) (h)
5.1 (Malaysia) 2 1 4 1.5 $11,210 1,993 40,188 1,880 6,091
3 (Germany) 3.5 1 6 1.5 $10,750 4,436 80,044 1,886 5,862