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Table 1 Simulation setting

From: Energy efficiency optimization-oriented control plane and user plane adaptation with a frameless network architecture for 5G

System parameter
 Number of Macro AEs 9
 Number of Small Cell AEs 72 (each Macro AE has two clusters with four Small AEs)
 Number of subchannels 20
 Maximum power of Macro AE 46 dBm
 Maximum power of Small Cell AE 30 dBm
 Carrier frequency 2 GHz
 Bandwidth 10 MHz
 Pathloss model PL = 128.1 + 37.6 log10 d, d(km)
 Shadowing standard deviation 8 dB
 Shadowing correlation distance 50 m
 Fast fading Rayleigh fading
 Noise density −174 dBm/Hz
 Maximal size of the serving set N a 3
 Maximal size of the subchannel set N s 3
GA parameters
 Population size N p 500
 Number of generations N g 200
 Mutation rate p m 0.001