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Table 1 A comparison of short-range wireless communication technologies suitable for WBAN

From: On the human body communications: wake-up receiver design and channel characterization

  HBC ZigBee Bluetooth Smart Impulse radio—UWB
Standard 802.15.6-2012 [2] 802.15.4-2015 [57] Bluetooth SIGb [58] 802.15.4-2015 [57] and 802.15.6-2012 [2]
Operating frequency 18.375–23.625 MHz 2.4–2.4835 GHz 2.4–2.485 GHz <10.6 GHz with regulatory restrictions
Antenna/electrode size 1–2 cm (diameter) 3.1 cm (λ/4) 3.1 cm (λ/4) 5 cm × 5 cm (λ3.1 GHz/2)
Range <3 m <200 m <100 m <20 m
Over the air data rate 1.3125 Mbps 250 kbps 1 Mbps 0.11–27 Mbps
Interference to/from other devices Low High High Low
Power consumption in transmit mode N/A commerciallya 77.4 mW [59] 31.5 mW [60] 129 mW at 110 kbps [61]
Power consumption in receive mode N/A commerciallya 55.5 mW [59] 39.0 mW [60] 228 mW at 110 kbps [61]
Modulation Frequency selective digital transmission Direct sequence spread spectrum Gaussian frequency shift keying Pulse position modulation and phase shift keying
  1. a802.15.6 compliant transceiver, e.g., introduced in [62] consumes 1.4 mW in transmit mode and 5.0 mW in receive mode
  2. bBluetooth Special Interest Group is responsible for standardization related issues