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Table 3 R&D cost and proportion in GDP

From: Current problems in China’s manufacturing and countermeasures for industry 4.0

Year 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016
R&D cost (billion yuan) 10,298 11,847 13,016 14,170 15,500
GDP (billion yuan) 540,367.4 595,244.4 643,974 689,052.1 744,127.2
Proportion (%) 1.91 1.99 2.02 2.06 2.08