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Table 2 Functions tested

From: Ensemble learning particle swarm optimization for real-time UWB indoor localization

Test function D Search space fmin Acceptance Name
Unimodal 30 [− 100,100]D 0 0.01 Sphere
30 [− 10,10]D 0 0.01 Schwefel’s P2.22
30 [− 10,10]D 0 100 Rosenbrock
30 [− 1.28,1.28]D 0 0.01 Quadric noise
Multimodal 30 [− 500,500]D − 12,569.5 − 10,000 Schwefel
30 [− 5.12,5.12]D 0 50 Rastrigin
30 [− 32,32]D 0 0.01 Ackley
30 [− 600,600]D 0 0.01 Griewank

30 [− 50,50]D 0 0.01 Generalized
Penalized
30 [− 50,50]D 0 0.01
Rotated 30 [− 500,500]D − 12,569.5 − 8000 Rotated Schwefel
30 [− 5.12,5.12]D 0 100 Rotated Rastrigin
30 [− 32,32]D 0 1 Rotated Ackley
30 [− 600,600]D 0 0.1 Rotated Griewank
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