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Table 3 Transport technologies for fronthaul

From: Realizing 5G vision through Cloud RAN: technologies, challenges, and trends

Transport technology Advantages Issues
Optical networks High-capacity Expensive optical devices
  Reduced fiber resources Requires previous infrastructure
  Passive (in the case of passive optical networking) Challenging network extensibility
CPRI-over-Ethernet Efficient Packetization introduces overhead and latency
  Cost-effective Ethernet is an asynchronous protocol, while fronthaul has strict synchronization requirements.
  Universal availability of interfaces  
Millimeter-wave frequencies High scalability and capacity High path loss
  High frequency reuse Low penetration
  Small form factor Line-of-sight requirement
  Underutilized spectrum  
  Point-to-multipoint links