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Table 1 The dual property of C3DP

From: The cost calculation method of construction 3D printing aligned with internet of things

Characteristics Properties of industrial product Properties of construction product Properties of C3DP
Cost calculation characteristics Batch production. Total cost is shared among each product. Cost is calculated as per component of construction product. Solely characterized with properties of the construction product, because the cost of each 3D printed unit is calculated individually.
Variation of cost calculation with time Cost is calculated after manufacturing.
No variation in cost after the product is manufactured.
Cost is calculated before the construction during the bidding stage. The final cost will change due to unforeseen factors during construction. Characterized by properties of both industrial and construction product, because the cost is calculated before construction through estimation, budgeting and bidding to select contractors before printing, while there is no obvious variation in cost during construction due to the low chance of unforeseen factors in the controllable 3D printing process.
Party which determines the cost calculation Cost calculation is determined by manufacturer. Cost is calculated by both owner and contractor. Either party alone is not able to determine the final cost. Solely characterized with properties of the construction product, because the cost is determined by both owner and contractor through bidding and settlement.
Composition of cost calculation Products of similar industry share similar manufacturing process and raw material. Cost compositions are stable without obvious variations across geometric regions. There are obvious variations for each construction products and across geometric regions due to distinctive geometric and geographic conditions. Solely characterized with properties of the industrial product, because the cost compositions are stable across different geometric regions.