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Table 5 Cost comparison among conventional construction, offsite C3DP and onsite C3DP

From: The cost calculation method of construction 3D printing aligned with internet of things

Compared items Conventional construction Offsite C3DP Onsite C3DP Influence on C3DP
Construction method Concrete is caste onsite. Components are printed offsite and assembled onsite. Structures are printed onsite. The cost is characterized by both properties of construction and industrial products.
Components fabrication session This session is not included in conventional construction. In the case that components need to be fabricated, they are completed at the site or in the site factory. In the offsite C3DP, printing is done according to the detailed design with high precision control by the automation and control technology. In the onsite C3DP, printing is done according to the detailed design with high precision control by the automation and control technology. The printing of components and buildings is characterized as industrial products, and thus, the cost of components shall be adjusted according to its properties.
Site construction Ground and foundation engineering No difference in cost No difference in cost No difference in cost No difference in cost.
Main work Concreting Concreting is the major part in site construction and its quality is the key controlling element. The concreting is done in 3D printing factory instead of site Concreting is done at site. There is reduction in human labor cost, material cost, and machine cost in C3DP.
Masonry Ordinary clay brick, bearing hollow clay brick, and all kinds of small- and medium-sized bricks are used construct traditional building wall. Not applicable
The walls are printed with cement or other printable construction material.
The walls are printed with cement or other printable construction material. This cost is eliminated.
Formworks A large number of formworks are required. Not applicable Not applicable This cost is eliminated.
Decoration works Decorative works including applying plaster on facade is needed. The decorative work reduces because no plaster needs to be applied on façade. The decorative work reduces because no plaster needs to be applied on façade. The decoration works are included in printing stage.
Installation HVAC and electrical installation Printed components are integrated with piping works for HVAC and electrical wiring. A minimum of installation is required at site. Printed components are integrated with piping works for HVAC and electrical wiring. A minimum of installation is required at site. The labor requirement because part of installation work is included in printing stage.
Hoisting works Usually hoisting large piece of components is not required at site. A major construction procedure at site assembly, thus there is the strict requirement on heavy machines. Not applicable Hoisting works increases in onsite C3DP.
Construction measures The construction site is full of formworks and scaffolding. Repeatedly erecting the formworks is needed. A number of formworks and scaffolding reduce. A number of formworks and scaffolding reduce. The cost in construction measures reduces.
Material consumption High material consumption rate and frequent leakage problems Accurate control of material usage. Low rate of material waste Accurate control of material usage. Low rate of material waste The amount of material consumption reduces.
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