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Table 3 Environment-specific network and propagation aspects

From: Optimisation of NB-IoT deployment for smart energy distribution networks

Environment ISD (km) Path loss (dB) Shadowing Penetration loss Channel model
RU 7.5 94.6 + 34.1 × log10(dKM) 6 dB Based on COST231 NLOS model [28] Rural area model, 6 taps, 0 Hz Doppler
SU 3.2 103.8 + 33.6 × log10(dKM) 8 dB Typical Urban (TU), 20 taps, 0 Hz Doppler
U 1.732 119.8 + 37.6 × log10(dKM) 10 dB
DU 0.5