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Table 1 Parameters of simulation

From: Cluster tree topology construction method based on PSO algorithm to prolong the lifetime of ZigBee wireless sensor networks

Number of nodes 100
Observation area 100 m × 100 m
Node communication radius 30 m
Transmission power 35 mW
Received power 12.5 mW
Communication speed 250 kbps
Amount of information 1000 bits
Round time 30 s
battery capacity 100 J
c 1, c 2 2,2
population size 200
Number of generations 500