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Table 2 Complexity analysis through execution times (best results are shown in italicized form)

From: Efficient payload communications for IoT-enabled ViSAR vehicles using discrete cosine transform-based quasi-sparse bit injection

MethodsPatch sizeExecution times (s)
Time elapsed for image transformationTime elapsed for bit embedding processTotal time
IBDH method in [3]1 × 107.487.48
IBDH-DCT (proposed)2 × 211.925.3717.29
4 × 47.166.9614.12
8 × 85.9510.4016.35
16 × 164.986.4111.39
32 × 325.416.3411.75
64 × 644.826.4511.27
128 × 1284.975.9710.94
256 × 2564.849.1313.97