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Table 1 Merits and demerits of various clustering protocols in WSNs

From: Hybrid WGWO: whale grey wolf optimization-based novel energy-efficient clustering for EH-WSNs

Clustering protocols Merits Demerits
Partition-based LEACH [24] Improvement in network lifetime. Unbalanced energy consumption.
Tree-Based Clustering (TBC) [23] Improvement in packet delivery but only inside the clusters. Energy consumption is uneven, higher delay.
Link-aware clustering mechanism (LCM) [22] Reliable routes are discovered by considering link quality. Enhancement in network lifetime. Communication overhead increases, excess energy consumption for re-clustering.
Enhanced threshold sensitive stable election protocol (ETSSEP) [21] Improvement in network lifetime. Reduction in packet delivery and network reliability performance.