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Table 4 Comparative analysis of WGWO for packet delivery ratio parameter

From: Hybrid WGWO: whale grey wolf optimization-based novel energy-efficient clustering for EH-WSNs

Nodes vs. packet delivery ratio (%) % Improvements of WGWO as compared with existing schemes
Number of nodes ↓ TBC Partition-based LEACH LCM ETSSEP WGWO % Improvement of WGWO as compared with ETSSEP % Improvement of WGWO as compared with LCM % Improvement of WGWO as compared with partition-based LEACH % Improvement of WGWO as compared with TBC
100 55 70 82.4 92 98 6.12 15.92 28.57 43.88
200 45 58 73.5 88 95 7.37 22.63 38.95 52.63
300 36.5 50 64.5 84 92 8.70 29.89 45.65 60.33
400 30 45 58.7 77 89 13.48 34.04 49.44 66.29
500 23 38 53 70 84 16.67 36.90 54.76 72.62
Average % improvements → 10.47 25.62 40.65 55.78