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Table 5 Comparison of short- and long-range MAC protocol for WBAN-enabled IoT technology

From: Towards achieving efficient MAC protocols for WBAN-enabled IoT technology: a review

Parameters Short-range communication standards and technologies Long-range communication systems
IEEE 802.15.4 IEEE 802.15.6 Bluetooth Wi-Fi ETSI SmartBAN Non-cellular technologies Cellular technologies
5G IoT radio standards and technologies
Sigfox LoRa alliance eMTC NB-IoT
Communication coverage Less than 100 m About 2 m–10 m 10 m -100 m About 1 km Less than 1.5 m Urban:50 km Rural: 50 km Urban: 5 km Rural: 15 km Rural: 15 km Rural: 35 km Urban: 8 km
Radio access technique Non-beacon: unslotted CSMA/CA, beacon: slotted CSMA/CA NB PHY layer: CSMA/CA, UWB PHY layer: slotted Aloha TDMA CSMA/CA CMP: slotted ALOHA SAP: TDMA UNB: ALOHA-based RFTDMA LoRaWAN based on Pure ALOHA UL: SC-FDMA DL: OFDMA UL: SC-FDMA DL: OFDMA
Energy requirement Very low Moderately low Low High Low Low Low Low Low
Health packet transmission rate 10—250 kbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps Less than 54 Mbps Less than 100 kbps 100 bps 50 kbps 1 Mbps UL: 160 – 200 kbps DL: 160 – 250 kbps
Data delay rate Low Very low Low Low Less than 125 ms 10 s 10 s 150 ms Less than 10 s
Network/Topology WPAN/star, mesh, tree WPAN/star WPAN/star, piconnet, scatternet WLAN/star Star network Star network Star network Star network Star network
Power consumption Approximately less than or equal to 50 mW Approximately 1 mW at a distance of 1 m Transmission power: -20 to 20 dBm Approximately equal to 800 mW - UL: 14 to 22 dBm DL: 26 to 36 dBm Transmission power: less than or equal to 50 mA Reception power: less than or equal to 10 – 40 mA Transmission power: 23 or 20 dBm Transmission power: 23 or 20 dBm
Strength Make best use of battery lifetime Reliable Operational cost is cost-effective Internet connectivity support Reliable in the context of multi-path interference Energy efficient and low operational cost Energy efficient and low operational cost Energy efficient, offer a fast as well as a reliable network Energy efficient, offer a fast as well as a reliable network
Limitations Limited coverage, Lack support for time-sensitive communications because of its CSMA/CA access mode exploitation, Energy wastage due to idle listening and collisions Limited coverage, Collision problems due to its channel access methods, i.e., CSMA/CA or slotted ALOHA, Suffers from idle listening problem Limited coverage, Lack support for real-time health-data transmissions Energy wastage problem caused by control overhead packets, Limited coverage, Scalability issue, Idle listening concern, Collision problem Limited coverage, Slot wastage and control overhead issues Low health packet capability, Reliability issue, Interference issue, Energy wastage issue due to idle listening of biosensors in the inter-transmission period Interference issue, Collision problems, Idle listening issue Limited capacity of the network, Waste power resources due to periodic listening to paging messages and link measurement High operational cost due to the use of licensed spectrum and high maintenance, high chances of collision during multiple channel access request by biosensor devices because of the inefficiency of NPRACH channel access method