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Table 3 Comparisons of the security features among different protocols

From: Lightweight authentication protocol in edge-based smart grid environment

Related protocol Smart meters Service providers Trusted authority Total costs Total costs (ms)
Tsai et al. [22] \(4T_{pm}+T_{exp}+5T_h\) \(2TG_e+3T_{pm}+T_{exp}+5T_h\) \(7T_{pm}+2T_{exp}+2TG_e+10T_h\) 243.73
Zhang et al. [23] \(T_{pm}+T_{ae}+T_d+T_h\) \(T_{pm}+T_{ad}+3T_d+T_h\) \(2T_{pm}+T_{ae}+T_{ad}+4T_d+2T_h\) 110.77
Mahmood et al. [24] \(4T_{pm}+4T_h+T_{pa}\) \(T_{pm}+T_h\) \(5T_{pm}+5T_h+T_{pa}\) 101.48
Wang et al. [41] \(TG_e+3T_{pm}+7T_h+T_d\) \(TG_e+3T_{pm}+T_{exp}+7T_h+T_d\) \(2TG_e+6T_{pm}+T_{exp}+14T_h+2T_d\) 198.59
Ghosh et al. [42] \(T_{pm}+2T_{exp}+TG_e+5T_h\) \(3T_{pm}+T_{exp}+TG_e+4T_h\) \(4T_{pm}+3T_{exp}+2TG_e+9T_h\) 208.28
Ours \(2T_{pm}+12T_h\) \(2T_{pm}+8T_h\) \(5T_h\) \(4T_{pm}+25T_h\) 81.67