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Table 1 Notations of variables

From: A multi-objective model-based vertical handoff algorithm for heterogeneous wireless networks

Notations
M The total number of BSs
N(t) The total users located under the coverage of the heterogeneous networks at time t
\(l_{ij}\) The distance from user j to BS i
\(rss_{ij}\) The RSS user j receives from BS i
\(\rho _{i}\) The transmission power of BS i
\(\kappa _{i}\) The path loss factor of BS i
\(\epsilon _{i}^{2}\) The Gaussian random variable of RSS
\(q_{i j}\) The data transmission rate user j obtains from BS i
\(w_{i}^{\prime }\) The average bandwidth that each channel of BS i can be allocated
\(D_{j}(t)\) The interference signal strength of user j at time t
\(\xi _{i}^{2}\) The Gaussian white noise of the interference signal strength
\(\gamma\) The basic bandwidth requirement of the user
\(u_{-}is(t)\) The number of handoff users in heterogeneous networks
\(u_{-}is_{i}\) The number of handoff users in each BS
\(u_{-}{\hbox {non}}_{i}\) The number of non-handoff users in each BS
\(\tau\) The user’s decision gap
\(\lambda _i\) The user arrival rate of BS i within the decision gap
\(s_{i}(t)\) The status of BS i in the heterogeneous network at time t
\(b_{{\mathrm{max}}}\) The maximum bandwidth requirements for the connection
\(b_{{\mathrm{min}}}\) The minimum bandwidth requirements for the connection
\(d_{{\mathrm{max}}}\) The maximum delay required for connection
\(d_{{\mathrm{min}}}\) The minimum delay required for connection
\(c_{i}\) The number of users served in BS i
\(\eta _i\) The number of channels of each BS i
\(\beta\) The discount factor