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Table 1 Simulation parameters

From: Synchronization in 5G networks: a hybrid Bayesian approach toward clock offset/skew estimation and its impact on localization

Parameters Values in synchronization (Sect. 4) Values in joint sync&loc (Sect. 5)
Number of independent simulations 10000 1000
Master node \(\varvec{\xi }_{1}\) \(\varvec{\xi }_{1}\)
Initial random delays interval [− 1000, 1000] ns [− 1000, 1000] ns
Number of time-stamp exchange (K) 10
Standard deviation of \(T^k_{ij}\) and \(R^k_{ij}\) 9 ns [2, 4, 6, 8, 10] ns
Random propagation delay between each pair of nodes \(\left[ 200, 300 \right]\) ns \(\left[ 200, 300 \right]\) ns
Initial pdf of the offset/skew for each node \({\mathcal {N}}(0,+\infty )\)/\({\mathcal {N}}(1,10^{-4})\)
Initial pdf of the offset/skew of MN \({\mathcal {N}}(0,0)\)/\({\mathcal {N}}(1,0)\)
STD of acceleration noise (\(\sigma _{a_x}, \sigma _{a_y}\)) 2.5 m/\(\hbox {s}^2\)
Period of joint sync&loc (\(\Delta\)) 200 ms
Process noise covariance matrix (\({\mathbf {Q}}_n\)) \(\text {diag}(10^{-12}, 10^{-2})\) \(\text {diag}(10^{-12}, 10^{-2}, (0.5\sigma _{a_x}\Delta )^2,\)
   \((0.5\sigma _{a_y}\Delta )^2, \sigma _{a_x}^2, \sigma _{a_y}^2)\)
Constant velocity 2 (m/s)
AN density 50 m