Skip to main content

Table 1 Global computational complexity of detectors studied in this work. Note that they are given in the most compact form and are also ranked in an ascending order, that is, from less to more costly as lines progress to the bottom of the table

From: Low-complexity deep unfolded neural network receiver for MIMO systems based on the probability data association detector


Global Computational Complexity

Simplified DU-PDA

\({\mathcal {O}}(LN_\text {t}N_\text {r})\)

Approximate Message Passing (AMP)

\({\mathcal {O}}(N_\text {I}N_\text {t}N_\text {r} + N_\text {I}N_\text {t}\sqrt{M})\)

Zero-Forcing (ZF)

\({\mathcal {O}}(N_\text {t}^3 + N_\text {t}^2 N_\text {r} + N_\text {t} N_\text {r})\)

Deep Unfolded PDA (DU-PDA)

\({\mathcal {O}}(LN_\text {t}^2 + LN_\text {t}N_\text {r} + LN_\text {r})\)

Probability Data Association (PDA)

\({\mathcal {O}}(N_\text {t}^4 + \sqrt{M}N_\text {t}^3 + N_\text {t}^2N_\text {r} + N_\text {t} N_\text {r})\)

Sphere Detector (SD)

\({\mathcal {O}}(M^{\sqrt{N_\text {t}}})\)

Maximum Likelihood Detector (MLD)

\({\mathcal {O}}(M^{N_\text {t}}(N_\text {t} N_\text {r} + N_\text {r}))\)