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  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Survey of Channel and Radio Propagation Models for Wireless MIMO Systems

  • 1Email author,
  • 2,
  • 3,
  • 2, 4,
  • 5,
  • 6,
  • 5,
  • 7,
  • 8,
  • 2,
  • 9, 1,
  • 10 and
  • 2
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20072007:019070

  • Received: 24 May 2006
  • Accepted: 15 November 2006
  • Published:


This paper provides an overview of the state-of-the-art radio propagation and channel models for wireless multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems. We distinguish between physical models and analytical models and discuss popular examples from both model types. Physical models focus on the double-directional propagation mechanisms between the location of transmitter and receiver without taking the antenna configuration into account. Analytical models capture physical wave propagation and antenna configuration simultaneously by describing the impulse response (equivalently, the transfer function) between the antenna arrays at both link ends. We also review some MIMO models that are included in current standardization activities for the purpose of reproducible and comparable MIMO system evaluations. Finally, we describe a couple of key features of channels and radio propagation which are not sufficiently included in current MIMO models.


  • Transfer Function
  • Physical Model
  • Impulse Response
  • Propagation Mechanism
  • Model Type


Authors’ Affiliations

Department of Electroscience, Lund University, P.O. Box 118, Lund, 221 00, Sweden
Institut für Nachrichtentechnik und Hochfrequenztechnik, Technische Universität Wien, Gußhausstraße, Wien, 1040, Austria
Department of Electronics, University of York, Heslington, York, YO10 5DD, UK
Forschungszentrum Telekommunikation Wien (ftw.), Donau City Straße 1, Wien, 1220, Austria
Mobile Communications Group, Institut Eurecom, 2229 Route des Cretes, BP193, Sophia Antipolis, 06904, France
Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Sistemistica, Università di Bologna, Villa Griffone, Pontecchio Marconi, Bologna, 40044, Italy
Elektrobit, Tutkijantie 7, Oulu, 90570, Finland
Institute for Digital Communications, School of Engineering and Electronics, The University of Edinburgh, Mayfield Road, Edinburgh, EH9 3JL, UK
Mitsubishi Electric Research Lab, 558 Central Avenue, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, USA
Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve, 1348, Belgium


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© P. Almers et al. 2007

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