Skip to main content

Characteristics of MIMO-OFDM Channels in Indoor Environments

Abstract

We present the results of multiple-input multiple-output orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (MIMO-OFDM) channel measurements. The measurements were performed in indoor environments using four transmitters and four receivers with 40 MHz bandwidth at 5.25 GHz. Our measurements reveal two-dimensional small-scale fading, and correlation between MIMO subchannels. In the line-of-sight (LoS) case, the MIMO-OFDM channel capacity is found to be strongly dependent on the local scattering environment; and much less dependent in the non-LoS (NLoS) case. Also, MIMO channel capacity is found to be largely uncorrelated over 20 MHz in NLoS, while a strong correlation is found over 40 MHz in some LoS environments. The validity of the conventional Kronecker correlation channel model is tested, along with a recently proposed joint correlation model. The effects of varying antenna element spacing are also investigated, taking into account such effects as mutual coupling, radiation efficiency, and radiation pattern.

[12345678910111213141516171819202122232425262728293031]

References

  1. Stüber GL, Barry JR, Mclaughlin SW, Li YE, Ingram MA, Pratt TG: Broadband MIMO-OFDM wireless communications. Proceedings of the IEEE 2004,92(2):271-293. 10.1109/JPROC.2003.821912

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Coffey S, Kasher A, Stephens A: Joint Proposal: high throughput extension to the 802.11 Standard: PHY. IEEE 802.11-05/1102r4, January 2006

    Google Scholar 

  3. Kyritsi P, Cox DC, Valenzuela RA, Wolniansky PW: Effect of antenna polarization on the capacity of a multiple element system in an indoor environment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2002,20(6):1227-1239. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.801225

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Wallace JW, Jensen MA, Swindlehurst AL, Jeffs BD: Experimental characterization of the MIMO wireless channel: data acquisition and analysis. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2003,2(2):335-343. 10.1109/TWC.2003.808975

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Batariere MD, Kepler JF, Krauss TP, Mukthavaram S, Porter JW, Vook FW: An experimental OFDM system for broadband mobile communications. Proceedings of 54th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '01), October 2001, Atlantic City, NJ, USA 4: 1947-1951.

    Google Scholar 

  6. Piechocki R, Fletcher P, Nix A, Canagarajah N, McGeehan J: A measurement based feasibility study of space-frequency MIMO detection and decoding techniques for next generation wireless LANs. IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics 2002,48(3):732-737. 10.1109/TCE.2002.1037068

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Yu K, Bengtsson M, Ottersten B, McNamara D, Karlsson P, Beach M: Modeling of wide-band MIMO radio channels based on NLoS indoor measurements. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2004,53(3):655-665. 10.1109/TVT.2004.827164

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Kita N, Yamada W, Sato A, Mori D, Uwano S:Measurement of Demmel condition number for MIMO-OFDM broadband channels. Proceedings of 59th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '04), May 2004, Milan, Italy 1: 294-298.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Heath RW Jr., Paulraj AJ: Switching between diversity and multiplexing in MIMO systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2005,53(6):962-968. 10.1109/TCOMM.2005.849774

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Gupta A, Forenza A, Heath RW Jr.: Rapid MIMO-OFDM software defined radio system prototyping. Proceedings of IEEE Workshop on Signal Processing Systems Design and Implementation, October 2004, Austin, Tex, USA 182-187.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Rao RM, Lang S, Daneshrad B: Indoor field measurements with a configurable multi-antenna testbed. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '04), November-December 2004, Dallas, Tex, USA 6: 3952-3956.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Suzuki H, Kendall R, Hedley M, Daniels G, Ryan D:Demonstration of MIMO data transmission on CSIRO ICT Centre MIMO testbed. Booklet of Abstracts for the 6th Australian Communications Theory Workshop, February 2005, Brisbane, Australia 35.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Van Zelst A, Schenk TC: Implementation of a MIMO OFDM-based wireless LAN system. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2004,52(2):483-494. 10.1109/TSP.2003.820989

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Yu K, Bengtsson M, Ottersten B, McNamara D, Karlsson P, Beach M: Second order statistics of NLOS indoor MIMO channels based on 5.2 GHz measurements. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunicatins Conference (GLOBECOM '01), November 2001, San Antonio, Tex, USA 1: 156-160.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Winters JH: On the capacity of radio communication systems with diversity in a Rayleigh fading environment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1987,5(5):871-878. 10.1109/JSAC.1987.1146600

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Suzuki H:Characteristics of MIMO-OFDM channels in indoor environments. Proceedings of the ClimDiff '05, Diff-13, September 2005, Cleveland, Ohio, USA

    Google Scholar 

  17. Suzuki H, Hedley M, Daniels G, Yuan J: Performance of MIMO-OFDM-BICM on measured indoor channels. Proceedings of 63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '06), May 2006, Melbourne, Australia 5: 2073-2077.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Shiu D-S, Foschini GJ, Gans MJ, Kahn JM: Fading correlation and its effect on the capacity of multielement antenna systems. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2000,48(3):502-513. 10.1109/26.837052

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Kyritsi P, Cox DC, Valenzuela RA, Wolniansky PW: Correlation analysis based on MIMO channel measurements in an indoor environment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(5):713-720. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.810299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Rappaport TS: Wireless Communications, Principles & Practice. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA; 1996.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  21. Greenstein LJ, Michelson DG, Erceg V: Moment-method estimation of the Ricean K-factor. IEEE Communications Letters 1999,3(6):175-176. 10.1109/4234.769521

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Janaswamy R: Effect of element mutual coupling on the capacity of fixed length linear arrays. IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 2002,1(1):157-160.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Fletcher PN, Dean M, Nix AR: Mutual coupling in multi-element array antennas and its influence on MIMO channel capacity. Electronics Letters 2003,39(4):342-344. 10.1049/el:20030219

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Wallace JW, Jensen MA: Mutual coupling in MIMO wireless systems: a rigorous network theory analysis. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004,3(4):1317-1325. 10.1109/TWC.2004.830854

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Pedersen KI, Andersen JB, Kermoal JP, Mogensen P: Stochastic multiple-input-multiple-output radio channel model for evaluation of space-time coding algorithms. Proceedings of 52nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '00), September 2000, Boston, Mass, USA 2: 893-897.

    Google Scholar 

  26. Kermoal JP, Schumacher L, Pedersen KI, Mogensen PE, Frederiksen F: A stochastic MIMO radio channel model with experimental validation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2002,20(6):1211-1226. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.801223

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Özcelik H, Herdin M, Weichselberger W, Wallace J, Bonek E: Deficiencies of 'Kronecker' MIMO radio channel model. Electronics Letters 2003,39(16):1209-1210. 10.1049/el:20030785

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Weichselberger W, Herdin M, Özcelik H, Bonek E: A stochastic MIMO channel model with joint correlation of both link ends. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2006,5(1):90-100.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Jayaweera SK, Poor HV: On the capacity of multiple-antenna systems in Rician fading. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005,4(3):1102-1111.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. McKay MR, Collings IB: General capacity bounds for spatially correlated Rician MIMO channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2005,51(9):3121-3145. 10.1109/TIT.2005.853325

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  31. Kang M, Alouini M-S: Capacity of MIMO Rician channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2006,5(1):112-122.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hajime Suzuki.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Suzuki, H., Tran, T.V.A. & Collings, I.B. Characteristics of MIMO-OFDM Channels in Indoor Environments. J Wireless Com Network 2007, 019728 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/19728

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Revised:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/19728

Keywords

  • Indoor Environment
  • Channel Capacity
  • Antenna Element
  • MIMO Channel
  • Mutual Coupling