Skip to main content

Performance Analysis of SSC Diversity Receivers over Correlated Ricean Fading Satellite Channels


This paper studies the performance of switch and stay combining (SSC) diversity receivers operating over correlated Ricean fading satellite channels. Using an infinite series representation for the bivariate Ricean probability density function (PDF), the PDF of the SSC output signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is derived. Capitalizing on this PDF, analytical expressions for the corresponding cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moments of the output SNR, the moments generating function (MGF), and the average channel capacity (CC) are derived. Furthermore, by considering several families of modulated signals, analytical expressions for the average symbol error probability (ASEP) for the diversity receivers under consideration are obtained. The theoretical analysis is accompanied by representative performance evaluation results, including average output SNR (ASNR), amount of fading (AoF), outage probability, average bit error probability (ABEP), and average CC, which have been obtained by numerical techniques. The validity of some of these performance evaluation results has been verified by comparing them with previously known results obtained for uncorrelated Ricean fading channels.



  1. 1.

    Rappaport TS: Wireless Communications. Prentice-Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA; 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Simon MK, Alouini M-S: Digital Communication over Fading Channels. 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 2005.

    Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Sagias NC, Karagiannidis GK: Gaussian class multivariate Weibull distributions: theory and applications in fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 2005,51(10):3608-3619. 10.1109/TIT.2005.855598

    MathSciNet  Article  MATH  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Corazza GE, Vatalaro F: A statistical model for land mobile satellite channels and its application to nongeostationary orbit systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1994,43(3, part 2):738-742. 10.1109/25.312773

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Wakana H: A propagation model for land mobile satellite communications. Proceedings of IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, June 1991, London, Ont, Canada 3: 1526-1529.

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Lutz E, Cygan D, Dippold M, Dolainsky F, Papke W: The land mobile satellite communication channel-recording, statistics, and channel model. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1991,40(2):375-386. 10.1109/25.289418

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    Simon MK, Alouini M-S:A unified performance analysis of digital communication with dual selective combining diversity over correlated Rayleigh and Nakagami- fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999,47(1):33-43. 10.1109/26.747811

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Chen Y, Tellambura C:Distribution functions of selection combiner output in equally correlated Rayleigh, Rician, and Nakagami- fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2004,52(11):1948-1956. 10.1109/TCOMM.2004.836596

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Karagiannidis GK, Zogas DA, Sagias NC, Kotsopoulos SA, Tombras GS: Equal-gain and maximal-ratio combining over nonidentical Weibull fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005,4(3):841-846.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Ismail MH, Matalgah MM: Performance of dual maximal ratio combining diversity in nonidentical correlated Weibull fading channels using Padé approximation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2006,54(3):397-402.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Sagias NC: Capacity of dual-branch selection diversity receivers in correlative Weibull fading. European Transactions on Telecommunications 2006,17(1):37-43. 10.1002/ett.1082

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Khatalin S, Fonseka JP:Capacity of correlated Nakagami- fading channels with diversity combining techniques. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2006,55(1):142-150. 10.1109/TVT.2005.861206

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Iskander C-D, Mathiopoulos PT:Performance of dual-branch coherent equal-gain combining in correlated Nakagami- fading. Electronics Letters 2003,39(15):1152-1154. 10.1049/el:20030727

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Abu-Dayya AA, Beaulieu NC: Switched diversity on microcellular Ricean channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1994,43(4):970-976. 10.1109/25.330159

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Ko Y-C, Alouini M-S, Simon MK: Analysis and optimization of switched diversity systems. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2000,49(5):1813-1831. 10.1109/25.892586

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Tellambura C, Annamalai A, Bhargava VK: Unified analysis of switched diversity systems in independent and correlated fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2001,49(11):1955-1965. 10.1109/26.966072

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Alouini M-S, Simon MK: Dual diversity over correlated log-normal fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2002,50(12):1946-1959. 10.1109/TCOMM.2002.806552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Zogas DA, Karagiannidis GK: Infinite-series representations associated with the bivariate Rician distribution and their applications. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2005,53(11):1790-1794. 10.1109/TCOMM.2005.858659

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Simon MK: Probability Distributions Involving Gaussian Random Variables: A Handbook for Engineers and Scientists. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Mass, USA; 2002.

    Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Bithas PS, Sagias NC, Mathiopoulos PT: Dual diversity over correlated Ricean fading channels. Journal of Communications and Networks 2007,9(1):67-74.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Gradshteyn IS, Ryzhik IM: Table of Integrals, Series, and Products. 6th edition. Academic Press, New York, NY, USA; 2000.

    Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Abramowitz M, Stegun IA: Handbook of Mathematical Functions with Formulas, Graphs and Mathematical Tables. 9th edition. Dover, New York, NY, USA; 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Abu-Dayya AA, Beaulieu NC: Analysis of switched diversity systems on generalized-fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1994,42(11):2959-2966. 10.1109/26.328977

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Papoulis A: Probability, Random Variables, and Stochastic Processes. 2nd edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA; 1984.

    Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Nuttal A: Some integrals involving the Q-function. In Tech. Rep. 4297. Naval Underwater Systems Center, New London, Conn, USA; 1972.

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Lee WCY: Estimate of channel capacity in Rayleigh fading environment. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 1990,39(3):187-189. 10.1109/25.130999

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    The Wolfram functions site

  28. 28.

    Adamchik VS, Marichev OI: The algorithm for calculating integrals of hypergeometric type functions and its realization in REDUCE system. Proceedings of International Symposium on Symbolic and Algebraic Computation (ISSAC '90), August 1990, Tokyo, Japan 212-224.

    Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Sagias NC, Zogas DA, Karagiannidis GK: Selection diversity receivers over nonidentical Weibull fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2005,54(6):2146-2151. 10.1109/TVT.2005.853452

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Bithas PS, Karagiannidis GK, Sagias NC, Mathiopoulos PT, Kotsopoulos SA, Corazza GE: Performance analysis of a class of GSC receivers over nonidentical Weibull fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2005,54(6):1963-1970. 10.1109/TVT.2005.858194

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Petros S. Bithas.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bithas, P.S., Mathiopoulos, P.T. Performance Analysis of SSC Diversity Receivers over Correlated Ricean Fading Satellite Channels. J Wireless Com Network 2007, 025361 (2007).

Download citation


  • Probability Density Function
  • Probability Density Function
  • Fading Channel
  • Outage Probability
  • Channel Capacity