Skip to main content
  • Research Article
  • Open access
  • Published:

Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels


We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs) employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS) component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.



  1. Foschini GJ, Gans MJ: On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications 1998,6(3):311-335. 10.1023/A:1008889222784

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Telatar E: Capacity of multiantenna Gaussian channels. In Tech. Memo. AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA; 1995.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Kaiser T: When will smart antennas be ready for the market? Part I. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2005,22(2):87-92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Kaiser T: When will smart antennas be ready for the market? Part II—results. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2005,22(6):174-176.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Gesbert D, Shafi M, Shiu D-S, Smith PJ, Naguib A: From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(3):281-302. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Gesbert D: Multipath: curse or blessing? A system performance analysis of MIMO wireless systems. Proceedings of the International Zurich Seminar on Communications (IZS '04), February 2004, Zurich, Switzerland 14-17.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Driessen PF, Foschini GJ: On the capacity formula for multiple input-multiple output wireless channels: a geometric interpretation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999,47(2):173-176. 10.1109/26.752119

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: Design of optimal high-rank line-of-sight MIMO channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2007,6(4):1420-1425.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: Construction and capacity analysis of high-rank line-of-sight MIMO channels. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '05), March 2005, New Orleans, La, USA 1: 432-437.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Larsson P: Lattice array receiver and sender for spatially orthonormal MIMO communication. Proceedings of the IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '05), May 2005, Stockholm, Sweden 1: 192-196.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: On spherical vs. plane wave modeling of line-of-sight MIMO channels. to appear in IEEE Transactions on Communications.

  12. Xu H, Gans MJ, Amitay N, Valenzuela RA: Experimental verification of MTMR system capacity in controlled propagation environment. Electronics Letters 2001,37(15):936-937. 10.1049/el:20010660

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Jiang J-S, Ingram MA: Spherical-wave model for short-range MIMO. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2005,53(9):1534-1541. 10.1109/TCOMM.2005.852842

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Hosli D, Lapidoth A: How good is an isotropic Gaussian input on a MIMO Ricean channel? Proceedings IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT '04), June-July 2004, Chicago, Ill, USA 291.

    Google Scholar 

  15. Stüber GL: Principles of Mobile Communication. 2nd edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Mass, USA; 2001.

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  16. Råde L, Westergren B: Mathematics Handbook for Science and Engineering. 5th edition. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 2004.

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  17. Tse D, Viswanath P: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. 1st edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 2005.

    Book  MATH  Google Scholar 

  18. IEEE 802.16-2004 : IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems. 2004.

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Frode Bøhagen.

Rights and permissions

Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Bøhagen, F., Orten, P. & Øien, G. Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels. J Wireless Com Network 2007, 045084 (2007).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • DOI: