Open Access

Optimal Design of Uniform Rectangular Antenna Arrays for Strong Line-of-Sight MIMO Channels

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20072007:045084

https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/45084

Received: 26 October 2006

Accepted: 1 August 2007

Published: 28 August 2007

Abstract

We investigate the optimal design of uniform rectangular arrays (URAs) employed in multiple-input multiple-output communications, where a strong line-of-sight (LOS) component is present. A general geometrical model is introduced to model the LOS component, which allows for any orientation of the transmit and receive arrays, and incorporates the uniform linear array as a special case of the URA. A spherical wave propagation model is used. Based on this model, we derive the optimal array design equations with respect to mutual information, resulting in orthogonal LOS subchannels. The equations reveal that it is the distance between the antennas projected onto the plane perpendicular to the transmission direction that is of importance with respect to design. Further, we investigate the influence of nonoptimal design, and derive analytical expressions for the singular values of the LOS matrix as a function of the quality of the array design. To evaluate a more realistic channel, the LOS channel matrix is employed in a Ricean channel model. Performance results show that even with some deviation from the optimal design, we get better performance than in the case of uncorrelated Rayleigh subchannels.

[123456789101112131415161718]

Authors’ Affiliations

(1)
Telenor Research and Innovation
(2)
Department of Informatics, UniK, University of Oslo (UiO) and Thrane & Thrane
(3)
Department of Electronics and Telecommunications, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)

References

  1. Foschini GJ, Gans MJ: On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications 1998,6(3):311-335. 10.1023/A:1008889222784View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Telatar E: Capacity of multiantenna Gaussian channels. In Tech. Memo. AT&T Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ, USA; 1995.Google Scholar
  3. Kaiser T: When will smart antennas be ready for the market? Part I. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2005,22(2):87-92.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Kaiser T: When will smart antennas be ready for the market? Part II—results. IEEE Signal Processing Magazine 2005,22(6):174-176.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  5. Gesbert D, Shafi M, Shiu D-S, Smith PJ, Naguib A: From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(3):281-302. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Gesbert D: Multipath: curse or blessing? A system performance analysis of MIMO wireless systems. Proceedings of the International Zurich Seminar on Communications (IZS '04), February 2004, Zurich, Switzerland 14-17.Google Scholar
  7. Driessen PF, Foschini GJ: On the capacity formula for multiple input-multiple output wireless channels: a geometric interpretation. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1999,47(2):173-176. 10.1109/26.752119View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: Design of optimal high-rank line-of-sight MIMO channels. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2007,6(4):1420-1425.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: Construction and capacity analysis of high-rank line-of-sight MIMO channels. Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '05), March 2005, New Orleans, La, USA 1: 432-437.Google Scholar
  10. Larsson P: Lattice array receiver and sender for spatially orthonormal MIMO communication. Proceedings of the IEEE 61st Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '05), May 2005, Stockholm, Sweden 1: 192-196.Google Scholar
  11. Bøhagen F, Orten P, Øien GE: On spherical vs. plane wave modeling of line-of-sight MIMO channels. to appear in IEEE Transactions on Communications.Google Scholar
  12. Xu H, Gans MJ, Amitay N, Valenzuela RA: Experimental verification of MTMR system capacity in controlled propagation environment. Electronics Letters 2001,37(15):936-937. 10.1049/el:20010660View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  13. Jiang J-S, Ingram MA: Spherical-wave model for short-range MIMO. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2005,53(9):1534-1541. 10.1109/TCOMM.2005.852842View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Hosli D, Lapidoth A: How good is an isotropic Gaussian input on a MIMO Ricean channel? Proceedings IEEE International Symposium on Information Theory (ISIT '04), June-July 2004, Chicago, Ill, USA 291.Google Scholar
  15. Stüber GL: Principles of Mobile Communication. 2nd edition. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Norwell, Mass, USA; 2001.MATHGoogle Scholar
  16. Råde L, Westergren B: Mathematics Handbook for Science and Engineering. 5th edition. Springer, Berlin, Germany; 2004.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  17. Tse D, Viswanath P: Fundamentals of Wireless Communication. 1st edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 2005.View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  18. IEEE 802.16-2004 : IEEE standard for local and metropolitan area networks part 16: air interface for fixed broadband wireless access systems. 2004.Google Scholar

Copyright

© Frode Bøhagen et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.