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Equalization of Multiuser Wireless CDMA Downlink Considering Transmitter Nonlinearity Using Walsh Codes

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Abstract

Transmitter nonlinearity has been a major issue in many scenarios: cellular wireless systems have high power RF amplifier (HPA) nonlinearity at the base station; satellite downlinks have nonlinear TWT amplifiers in the satellite transponder and multipath conditions in the ground station; and radio-over-fiber (ROF) systems consist of a nonlinear optical link followed by a wireless channel. In many cases, the nonlinearity is simply ignored if there is no out-of-band emission. This results in poor BER performance. In this paper we propose a new technique to estimate the linear part of the wireless downlink in the presence of a nonlinearity using Walsh codes; Walsh codes are commonly used in CDMA downlinks. Furthermore, we show that equalizer performance is significantly improved by taking into account the presence of the nonlinearity during channel estimation. This is shown by using a regular decision feedback equalizer (DFE) with both wireless and RF amplifier noise. We perform estimation in a multiuser CDMA communication system where all users transmit their signal simultaneously. Correlation analysis is applied to identify the channel impulse response (CIR) and the derivation of key correlation relationships is shown. A difficulty with using Walsh codes in terms of their correlations (compared to PN sequences) is then presented, as well as a discussion on how to overcome it. Numerical evaluations show a good estimation of the linear system with 54 users in the downlink and a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of 25 dB. Bit error rate (BER) simulations of the proposed identification and equalization algorithms show a BER of achieved at an SNR of dB.

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Correspondence to Stephen Z. Pinter.

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Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 International License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Keywords

  • Channel Impulse Response
  • Decision Feedback Equalizer
  • Transmitter Nonlinearity
  • Walsh Code
  • Cellular Wireless System