- Research Article
- Open Access
Polarization Behavior of Discrete Multipath and Diffuse Scattering in Urban Environments at 4.5 GHz
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking volume 2007, Article number: 057980 (2007)
The polarization behavior of the mobile MIMO radio channel is analyzed from polarimetric double-directional channel measurements, which were performed in a macrocell rural environment in Tokyo. The recorded data comprise non-line-of-sight, obstructed line-of-sight, and line-of-sight conditions. The gradient-based maximum-likelihood estimation framework RIMAX was used to estimate both specular and dense multipath components. Joint angular-delay results are gained only for the specular components. The dense multipath components, which may be attributed to diffuse scattering, can be characterized only in delay domain. Different characteristics describing the polarization behavior and power-weighted cross- and copolarization ratios for both types of components are introduced. Statistical analysis of long measurement track segments indicates global trends, whereas local analysis emphasizes specific behavior such as polarization dependency on angle of incidence in streets and under shadowing conditions. The results also underline the importance of modeling changing and transient propagation scenarios which are currently not common in available MIMO channel models.
Oestges C, Erceg V, Paulraj AJ: Propagation modeling of MIMO multipolarized fixed wireless channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2004,53(3):644-654. 10.1109/TVT.2004.827149
Dong L, Choo H, Heath RW Jr., Ling H: Simulation of MIMO channel capacity with antenna polarization diversity. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005,4(4):1869-1872.
Hämäläinen J, Wichman R, Nuutinen J-P, Ylitalo J, Jämsä T: Analysis and measurements for indoor polarization MIMO in 5.25 GHz band. Proceedings of 61st IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '05), May-June 2005, Stockholm, Sweden 1: 252-256.
Waldschmidt C, Kuhnert C, Fügen T, Wiesbeck W: Measurements and simulations of compact MIMO-systems based on polarization diversity. Proceedings of IEEE Topical Conference on Wireless Communication Technology, October 2003, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA 284-285.
Goud P Jr., Schlegel C, Krzymień WA, et al.: Indoor MIMO channel measurements using dual polarized patch antennas. Proceedings of IEEE Pacific RIM Conference on Communications, Computers, and Signal Processing (PACRIM '03), August 2003, Victoria, BC, Canada 2: 752-755.
Kyritsi P, Cox DC, Valenzuela RA, Wolniansky PW: Effect of antenna polarization on the capacity of a multiple element system in an indoor environment. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2002,20(6):1227-1239. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.801225
Thomä R, Hampicke D, Landmann M, Richter A, Sommerkorn G: Measurement-based parametric channel modelling (MBPCM). Proceedings of International Conference on Electromagnetics in Advanced Applications (ICEAA '03), September 2003, Torino, Italy
Haardt M, Thomä R, Richter A: Multidimensional high-resolution parameter estimation with applications to channel sounding. In High-Resolution and Robust Signal Processing. Edited by: Hua Y, Gershman AB, Cheng Q. Marcel Dekker, New York, NY, USA; 2003:253-337.
Fleury BH, Tschudin M, Heddergott R, Dahlhaus D, Pedersen KI: Channel parameter estimation in mobile radio environments using the SAGE algorithm. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1999,17(3):434-450. 10.1109/49.753729
Richter A: On the estimation of radio channel parameters: models and algorithms (RIMAX), Ph.D. thesis. Technische Universität Ilmenau, Ilmenau, Germany; 2005.
Landmann M, Thomä R: Estimation of phase drift during calibration measurements for efficient beam pattern modelling. Proceedings of NEWCOM-ACoRN Workshop, September 2006, Vienna, Austria
Medbo J, Riback M, Asplund H, Berg J: MIMO channel characteristics in a small macrocell measured at 5.25 GHz and 200 MHz bandwidth. Proceedings of the 62nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '05), September 2005, Dallas, Tex, USA 1: 372-376.
Yin X, Fleury BH, Jourdan P, Stucki A: Polarization estimation of individual propagation paths using the SAGE algorithm. Proceedings of 14th IEEE International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '03), September 2003, Beijing, China 2: 1795-1799.
Ching GS, Ghoraishi M, Lertsirisopon N, et al.: Wideband directional radio propagation channel analysis inside an arched tunnel. Proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Communications (PIMRC '06), September 2006, Helsinki, Finland
Correia LM: Mobile Broadband Multimedia Networks: Techniques, Models and Tools for 4G. Elsevier, London, UK; 2006.
IST-4-027756 WINNER II D1.1.1 Interim report : WINNER II interim channel models. https://www.ist-winner.org
Thomä R, Landmann M, Richter A, Trautwein U: Multidimensional high-resolution channel sounding measurement. In Smart Antennas—State of the Art, EURASIP Book Series on Signal Processing and Communications. Volume 3. Edited by: Kaiser T, Bourdoux A, Boche H, Fonollosa JR, Andersen JB, Utschick W. Hindawi, New York, NY, USA; 2005:241-270.
Kalliola K, Sulonen K, Laitinen H, Kivekäs O, Krogerus J, Vainikainen P: Angular power distribution and mean effective gain of mobile antenna in different propagation environments. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2002,51(5):823-838. 10.1109/TVT.2002.800639
Andersen JB, Nielsen JØ, Bauch G, Herdin M: The large office environment - measurement and modeling of the wideband radio channel. Proceedings of the 17th Annual IEEE International Symposium on Personal Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications (PIMRC '06), September 2006, Helsinki, Finland
Sivasondhivat K, Landmann M, Takada J-i, Nakaya Y, Ida I, Oishi Y: Full polarimetric 3-D double directional channel measurement in a NLOS macrocellular environment. In Tech. Rep. AP2005-117. IEICE, Tokyo, Japan; 2005.
Kainulainen A, Vuokko L, Vainikainen P: Polarization behaviour in different urban radio environments at 5.3 GHz. COST 273 Temporary Document TD(05)018 2005.
Vuokko L, Vainikainen P, Takada J-i: Clusters extracted from measured propagation channels in macrocellular environments. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 2005,53(12):4089-4098.
About this article
Cite this article
Landmann, M., Sivasondhivat, K., Takada, J. et al. Polarization Behavior of Discrete Multipath and Diffuse Scattering in Urban Environments at 4.5 GHz. J Wireless Com Network 2007, 057980 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1155/2007/57980
- Channel Model
- Radio Channel
- Channel Measurement
- Diffuse Scattering
- Propagation Scenario