Skip to content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

Multi-Satellite MIMO Communications at Ku-Band and Above: Investigations on Spatial Multiplexing for Capacity Improvement and Selection Diversity for Interference Mitigation

  • 1Email author,
  • 1 and
  • 1
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20072007:059608

  • Received: 28 August 2006
  • Accepted: 13 May 2007
  • Published:


This paper investigates the applicability of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology to satellite communications at the Ku-band and above. After introducing the possible diversity sources to form a MIMO matrix channel in a satellite environment, particular emphasis is put on satellite diversity. Two specific different topics from the field of MIMO technology applications to satellite communications at these frequencies are further analyzed: (i) capacity improvement achieved by MIMO spatial multiplexing systems and (ii) interference mitigation achieved by MIMO diversity systems employing receive antenna selection. In the first case, a single-user capacity analysis of a satellite MIMO spatial multiplexing system is presented and a useful analytical closed form expression is derived for the outage capacity achieved. In the second case, a satellite MIMO diversity system with receive antenna selection is considered, adjacent satellite cochannel interference on its forward link is studied and an analytical model predicting the interference mitigation achieved is presented. In both cases, an appropriate physical MIMO channel model is assumed which takes into account the propagation phenomena related to the frequencies of interest, such as clear line-of-sight operation, high antenna directivity, the effect of rain fading, and the slant path lengths difference. Useful numerical results obtained through the analytical expressions derived are presented to compare the performance of multi-satellite MIMO systems to relevant single-input single-output (SISO) ones.


  • Information System
  • Selection Diversity
  • System Application
  • Interference Mitigation
  • Spatial Multiplex


Authors’ Affiliations

Wireless & Satellite Communications Group, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National Technical University of Athens (NTUA), 9 Iroon Polytechniou Street, Zografou, Athens, 15780, Greece


  1. Paulraj AJ, Gore DA, Nabar RU, Bölcskei H: An overview of MIMO communications—a key to gigabit wireless. Proceedings of the IEEE 2004,92(2):198-218. 10.1109/JPROC.2003.821915View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Gesbert D, Shafi M, Shiu D-S, Smith PJ, Naguib A: From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(3):281-302. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  3. Liolis KP, Panagopoulos AD, Cottis PG: Outage capacity statistics of MIMO satellite networks operating at Ka band and above. Proceedings of the 12th Ka and Broadband Communications Conference, September 2006, Naples, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  4. Yamashita F, Kobayashi K, Ueba M, Umehira M: Broadband multiple satellite MIMO system. Proceedings of the 62nd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '05), September 2005, Dallas, Tex, USA 2632-2636.Google Scholar
  5. King PR, Stavrou S: Land mobile-satellite MIMO capacity predictions. Electronics Letters 2005,41(13):749-751. 10.1049/el:20051446View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Hult T, Mohammed A: MIMO antenna applications for LEO satellite communications. Proceedings of the 3rd ESA International Workshop of the European COST 280 Action, June 2005, Prague, Czech RepublicGoogle Scholar
  7. Martin C, Geurtz A, Ottersten B: Spectrally efficient mobile satellite real-time broadcast with transmit diversity. Proceedings of the 60th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '04), September 2004, Los Angeles, Calif, USA 6: 4079-4083.Google Scholar
  8. Frigyes I, Horváth P: Polarization-time coding in satellite links. IEEE Satellite and Space Communications Newsletter 2005,15(2):6-8.Google Scholar
  9. Horváth P, Frigyes I: SAT02-6: application of the 3D polarization concept in satellite MIMO systems. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '06), November 2006, San Francisco, Calif, USA 1-5.Google Scholar
  10. King PR, Stavrou S: Capacity improvement for a land mobile single satellite MIMO system. Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters 2006,5(1):98-100.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  11. Sellathurai M, Guinand P, Lodge J: Space-time coding in mobile satellite communications using dual-polarized channels. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2006,55(1):188-199. 10.1109/TVT.2005.861195View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Taricco G, Viterbo E, Biglier E: MIMO transmission for mobile satellite communication systems: a review. Proceedings of the 8th International Workshop on Signal Processing for Space Communications (SPSC '03), September 2003, Catania, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  13. Panagopoulos AD, Arapoglou P-DM, Cottis PG: Satellite communications at Ku, Ka, and V bands: propagation impairments and mitigation techniques. IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials 2004,6(3):2-14.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Faller C, Juang B-H, Kroon P, Lou H-L, Ramprashad SA, Sundberg C-EW: Technical advances in digital audio radio broadcasting. Proceedings of the IEEE 2002,90(8):1303-1333. 10.1109/JPROC.2002.800718View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  15. Mietzner J, Hoeher PA: Distributed space-time codes for cooperative wireless networks in the presence of different propagation delays and path losses. Proceedings of Sensor Array and Multichannel Signal Processing Workshop (SAM '04), July 2004, Barcelona, Spain 264-268.Google Scholar
  16. Getu BN, Andersen JB: The MIMO cube—a compact MIMO antenna. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2005,4(3):1136-1141.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Panagopoulos AD, Kanellopoulos JD: Prediction of triple-orbital diversity performance in Earth-space communication. International Journal of Satellite Communications 2002,20(3):187-200. 10.1002/sat.720View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. ITU-R Recommendation P.837-4 : Characteristics of Precipitation for Propagation Modeling. Geneva, Switzerland, 2003.Google Scholar
  19. Foschini GJ, Gans MJ: On limits of wireless communications in a fading environment when using multiple antennas. Wireless Personal Communications 1998,6(3):311-335. 10.1023/A:1008889222784View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Telatar IE: Capacity of multi-antenna Gaussian channels. European Transactions on Telecommunications 1999,10(6):585-595. 10.1002/ett.4460100604View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Sanayei S, Nosratinia A: Antenna selection in MIMO systems. IEEE Communications Magazine 2004,42(10):68-73. 10.1109/MCOM.2004.1341263View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  22. Kanellopoulos JD, Ventouras S, Vazouras CN: A revised model for the prediction of differential rain attenuation on adjacent Earth-space propagation paths. Radio Science 1993,28(6 part 2):1071-1086.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  23. Arapoglou P-DM, Panagopoulos AD, Kanellopoulos JD, Cottis PG: Intercell radio interference studies in CDMA-based LMDS networks. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 2005,53(8):2471-2479.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  24. Panagopoulos AD, Arapoglou P-DM, Kanellopoulos JD, Cottis PG: Intercell radio interference studies in broadband wireless access networks. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2007,56(1):3-12.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. ITU-R Recommendation S.580-6 : Radiation Diagrams for Use as Design Objectives for Antennas of Earth Stations Operating with Geostationary Satellites. Geneva, Switzerland, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. Horváth P, Frigyes I: Application of the MIMO concept in millimeter-wave broadband wireless access networks. International Journal of Wireless Information Networks 2004,11(4):217-225. 10.1007/s10776-004-1233-2View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  27. Papoulis A, Pillai SU: Probability, Random Variables and Stochastic Processes. 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA; 2002.Google Scholar


© Konstantinos P. Liolis et al. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.