Skip to main content


  • Research Article
  • Open Access

A Versatile Propagation Channel Simulator for MIMO Link Level Simulation

EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking20072007:080194

  • Received: 29 March 2006
  • Accepted: 7 May 2007
  • Published:


This paper presents a propagation channel simulator for polarized bidirectional wideband propagation channels. The generic channel model implemented in the simulator is a set of rays described by geometrical and propagation features such as the delay, 3D direction at the base station and mobile station and the polarization matrix. Thus, most of the wideband channel models including tapped delay line models, tap directional models, scatterer or geometrical models, ray-tracing or ray-launching results can be simulated. The simulator is composed of two major parts: firstly the channel complex impulse responses (CIR) generation and secondly the channel filtering. CIRs (or CIR matrices for MIMO configurations) are processed by specifying a propagation model, an antenna array configuration, a mobile direction, and a spatial sampling factor. For each sensor, independent arbitrary 3D vectorial antenna patterns can be defined. The channel filtering is based on the overlap-and-add method. The time-efficiency and parameterization of this method are discussed with realistic simulation setups. The global processing time for the CIR generation and the channel filtering is also evaluated for realistic configuration. A simulation example based on a bidirectional wideband channel model in urban environments illustrates the usefulness of the simulator.


  • Mobile Station
  • Antenna Array
  • Antenna Pattern
  • Array Configuration
  • Polarization Matrix


Authors’ Affiliations

France Telecom NSM/R&D/RESA/NET 6, avenue des Usines, BP 382, Belfort Cedex, 90007, France


  1. Gesbert D, Shafi M, Da-shan S, Smith PJ, Naguib A: From theory to practice: an overview of MIMO space-time coded wireless systems. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(3):281-302. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.809458View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  2. Goldsmith A, Jafar SA, Jindal N, Vishwanath S: Capacity limits of MIMO channels. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2003,21(5):684-702. 10.1109/JSAC.2003.810294View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. Yu K, Ottersten B: Models for MIMO propagation channels: a review. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing 2002,2(7):653-666. 10.1002/wcm.78View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  4. Molisch AF: Effect of far scatterer clusters in MIMO outdoor channel models. Proceedings of the 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '03), April 2003, Jeju, Korea 1: 534-538.Google Scholar
  5. Kermoal JP, Schumacher L, Pedersen KI, Mogensen PE, Frederiksen F: A stochastic MIMO radio channel model with experimental validation. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 2002,20(6):1211-1226. 10.1109/JSAC.2002.801223View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  6. Pedersen KI, Andersen JB, Kermoal JP, Mogensen PP: A stochastic multiple-input-multiple-output radio channel model for evaluation of space-time coding algorithms. Proceedings of the 52nd Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '00), September 2000, Boston, Mass, USA 2: 893-897.Google Scholar
  7. Ertel RB, Cardieri P, Sowerby KW, Rappaport TS, Reed JH: Overview of spatial channel models for antenna array communication systems. IEEE Personal Communications 1998,5(1):10-22. 10.1109/98.656151View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  8. Molisch AF: A generic model for MIMO wireless propagation channels in macro- and microcells. IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing 2004,52(1):61-71. 10.1109/TSP.2003.820144MathSciNetView ArticleGoogle Scholar
  9. Seedahmed SM, Hussain MZ, O'Sheay P: Space-time geometrical-based channel models: a comparative study. Proceedings of Australian Telecommunication, Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC '03), December 2003, Melbourne, AustraliaGoogle Scholar
  10. Spatial channel model for Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) simulations 3GPP TR 25.996 V6.1.0, 2003.Google Scholar
  11. Xu H, Chizhik D, Huang H, Valenzuela R: A generalized space-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channel model. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2004,3(3):966-975. 10.1109/TWC.2004.827736View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  12. Conrat J-M, Pajusco P: Typical MIMO propagation channels in urban macrocells at 2 GHz. Proceedings of the 13th European Wireless Conference (EW '07), April 2007, Paris, FranceGoogle Scholar
  13. Agelet FA, Formella A, María J, Rábanos JMH, de Vicente FI, Fontán FP: Efficient ray-tracing acceleration techniques for radio propagation modeling. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2000,49(6):2089-2104. 10.1109/25.901880View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  14. Fugen T, Maurer J, Kayser T, Wiesbeck W: Verification of 3D ray-tracing with non-directional and directional measurements in urban macrocellular environments. Proceedings of the 63rd IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '06), May 2006, Melbourne, Australia 2661-2665.Google Scholar
  15. Jensen MA, Wallace JW: A review of antennas and propagation for MIMO wireless communications. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 2004,52(11):2810-2824. 10.1109/TAP.2004.835272View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  16. Steinbauer M, Molisch AF, Bonek E: The double-directional radio channel. IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine 2001,43(4):51-63. 10.1109/74.951559View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  17. Kivinen J, Zhao X, Vainikainen P: Empirical characterization of wideband indoor radio channel at 5.3 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation 2001,49(8):1192-1203. 10.1109/8.943314View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  18. Zhao X, Kivinen J, Vainikainen P, Skog K: Characterization of Doppler spectra for mobile communications at 5.3 GHz. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2003,52(1):14-23. 10.1109/TVT.2002.807222View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  19. Li Y, Huang X: The simulation of independent Rayleigh faders. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2002,50(9):1503-1514. 10.1109/TCOMM.2002.802562View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  20. Zheng YR, Xiao C: Simulation models with correct statistical properties for Rayleigh fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2003,51(6):920-928. 10.1109/TCOMM.2003.813259View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  21. Pop MF, Beaulieu NC: Limitations of sum-of-sinusoids fading channel simulators. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2001,49(4):699-708. 10.1109/26.917776View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  22. Paetzold M, Laue F: Statistical properties of Jakes' fading channel simulator. Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '98), May 1998, Ottawa, Canada 2: 712-718.Google Scholar
  23. Pajusco P: Experimental characterization of DOA at the base station in rural and urban area. Proceedings of the 48th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '98), May 1998, Ottawa, Canada 2: 993-997.Google Scholar
  24. Pätzold M: Mobile Fading Channels. John Wiley & Sons, New York, NY, USA; 2002.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  25. Vuokko L, Kainulainen A, Vainikainen P: Polarization behavior in different urban radio environments at 5.3 GHz. Proceedings of Wireless Summit & Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (IWS/WPMC '05), September 2005, Aalborg, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  26. Dunand A, Conrat J-M: Dual-polarized spatio-temporal characterization in urban macrocells at 2 GHz. Proceedings of the 66th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC '07), September-October 2007, Baltimore, Md, USAGoogle Scholar
  27. Ng KH, Tameh EK, Nix AR: Modelling and performance prediction for multiple antenna systems using enhanced ray tracing. Proceedings of IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC '05), March 2005, New Orleans, La, USA 2: 933-937.Google Scholar
  28. Morosi S, Tosi M, Del Re E, Fantacci R, Riva P: Implementation of a wideband directional channel model for a UMTS link level simulator. Proceedings of IEEE Global Telecommunications Conference (GLOBECOM '03), December 2003, San Francisco, Calif, USA 6: 3381-3385.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  29. Jeruchim MC, Balaban P, Shanmugan KS: Simulation of Communication Systems. Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA; 1992.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  30. Ifeachor EC, Jervis BW: Digital Signal Processing: A Pratical Approach. Addison-Wesley, Reading, Mass, USA; 1993.Google Scholar
  31. Pätzold M, Garcia R, Laue F: Design of high-speed simulation models for mobile fading channels by using table look-up techniques. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2000,49(4):1178-1190. 10.1109/25.875225View ArticleGoogle Scholar
  32. Press WH, Vetterling WT, Teukolsky SA, Lannery BP: Numerical Recipes in C, The Art of Scientific Computing. 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK; 1992.MATHGoogle Scholar
  33. Conrat J-M, Pajusco P: Clusterization of the propagation channel in urban macrocells at 2 GHz. Proceedings of the 8th European Conference on Wireless Technology (ECWT '05), October 2005, Paris, France 39-42.Google Scholar
  34. Guillén i Fàbregas A, Guillaud M, Slock DTM, et al.: A MIMO-OFDM testbed for wireless local area networks. EURASIP Journal on Advances in Signal Processing 2006, 2006: 20 pages.MATHGoogle Scholar


© J.-M. Conrat and P. Pajusco. 2007

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.