Joint Multilevel Turbo Equalization and Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying
© Oguz Bayat et al. 2008
Received: 2 May 2008
Accepted: 31 December 2008
Published: 21 January 2009
A novel type of turbo coded modulation scheme, called multilevel turbo coded-continuous phase frequency shift keying (MLTC-CPFSK), is designed to improve the overall bit error rate (BER) and bandwidth efficiency. Then, this scheme is combined with a new double decision feedback equalizer (DDFE) to remove the interference and to enhance BER performance for the intersymbol interference (ISI) channels. The entire communication scheme is called multilevel turbo equalization-continuous phase frequency shift keying (MLTEQ-CPFSK). In these schemes, parallel input data sequences are encoded using the multilevel scheme and mapped to CPFSK signals to obtain a powerful code with phase continuity over the air. The performances of both MLTC-CPFSK and MLTEQ-CPFSK systems were simulated over nonfrequency and frequency-selective channels, respectively. The superiority of the two level turbo codes with 4CPFSK modulation is shown against the trellis-coded 4CPFSK, multilevel convolutional coded 4CPFSK, and TTCM schemes. Finally, the bit error rate curve of MLTEQ-CPFSK system over Proakis B channel is depicted and ISI cancellation performance of DDFE equalizer is shown against linear and decision feedback equalizers
With the development of the wireless communication industry, wireless data communications have become a very important research area for many scientists. As a result, tremendous improvements have occurred in coding, modulation, and signal processing subsystems to provide burst rates along with power efficiency at low bit error rates. First, conventional turbo code was found to be very attractive in the last decade , since turbo code reached theoretical limits in an iterative fashion at low signal-to-noise ratio with a cost of a low code rate and bandwidth expansion. Several years later, the compensation for bandwidth expansion and the low code rate was realized by applying multilevel and trellis-coded modulation to turbo code, known as multilevel turbo codes (MLTCs) [2, 3] and turbo trellis-coded modulation (TTCM) [4, 5], respectively, in the literature. These techniques increase the spectral efficiency of the coding via concatenating higher-order modulation using PSK or QAM modulations ; however, these communication models have phase jumps in their modulated signals. Continuous phase modulation (CPM) has explicit advantages in deep space and satellite communications, such as having low spectral occupancy property. Thus, to improve the bandwith usage further, MLTC design is concatenated and investigated with CPM modulation in this research.
MLTC is modeled by applying separate turbo encoders at each level. Each turbo encoder processes the information sequence simultaneously. For each level of the mutilevel encoder, there exists a corresponding decoder defined as a stage. The output of one stage is utilized at the decoder of the following stage in the decoding flow, known as multistage decoding .
The CPM model that is used with the MLTC is composed of a continuous-phase encoder (CPE) and a memoryless mapper (MM). The CPE is a convolutional encoder producing codeword sequences that are mapped onto waveforms by the MM, creating a continuous-phase signal. CPE-related schemes have better BER performance than systems using the traditional approach for a given number of trellis states due to larger Euclidean distances. When the decomposed structure of CPM is considered, joint trellis coded and CPM, and joint multilevel convolutional code and CPM systems can be designed as in [8, 9].
For achieving a low bit error rate (BER) over a severe ISI channel, the double decision feedback equalization is designed for MLTC-CPFSK system [10–12]. It is well know that maximum a posteriori probability (MAP) and soft output Viterbi algorithm-based equalizers are very effective, but having very high complexity, which is not applicable to our design since our transmission scheme has high complexity. Performances of traditional low-complexity equalizers such as linear equalizer (LE) and decision feedback equalizers (DFE) are not effective under severe channel conditions. To close the performance gap between high- and low-complexity equalizers, DDFE is proposed and implemented into the MLTC-CPFSK system. Thus, the effect of a severe ISI channel is mitigated by the equalization process and then the equalized information passes through the MAP algorithm-based decoders which decode the two encoded streams by exchanging the soft decisions.
In this paper, Section 2 explains the design of multilevel turbo encoder with CPFSK modulation. Section 3 describes the DDFE-based turbo equalization receiver scheme. In Section 4,the performances of the proposed MLTC-CPFSK and MLTEQ-CPFSK schemes are presented over AWGN, Rician, Rayleigh, and Proakis B channels, respectively, and the conclusion is stated at the last section.
2. The Design of Multilevel Turbo Encoder Using CPFSK
where is the asymmetric carrier frequency as and is the carrier frequency. is the energy per channel symbol and is the initial carrier phase. We assume that is an integer; this condition leads to a simplification when using the equivalent representation of the CPM waveform.
3. Turbo Equalization Receiver Scheme
where K is the Rician factor in terms of dB. We assume that the demodulator operates over one symbol interval, which yields a discrete memoryless channel. At the receiver, the corrupted MLTC-CPFSK signals are processed by the demodulator and MAP decoder to extract the information sequence.
After the M-CPFSK modulated signals are run through the channel, they are demodulated and then noisy demodulator outputs are evaluated for every equalization and decoding process. The following is the high-level summary of the equalization and decoding process. In the first step, the probabilities of received signal being zero and one is computed as in (7) and then, the probabilities are mapped to range via (8). In the second step, the computation of the equivalent discrete channel taps is explained when the channel conditions are known for the traditional decision feedback equalizer. In our application and real applications, the channel information is not known. Thus, the estimation process of the channel via LMS algorithm is performed and described. The coefficient vectors of the filters are defined from (14) and their adaptation is explained from (15). The DDFE equalization output is derived with (17). Finally, the equalized information is processed by the MAP decoder as in (18).
In order to reduce the notation of the equations and figures, the notation is not changed when the information is processed by the interleavers. Only the channel output feeds the equalizer at the first iteration, therefore, the equalizer uses training sequence to operate for the initial process. For further iterations, the FF filter is fed by the channel output and the channel estimator output. The channel estimator uses both the hard decision of the first decoder and the channel output to estimate the channel information. The first FB filter uses the hard decision of the first decoder whereas the second FB filter uses the hard decision of the second decoder .
Since the equivalent discrete channel taps are unknown in most of the communication applications, the filter coefficient cannot be computed from the equation above.
During the initializing period, the coefficients of the FF filter at the first iteration are estimated from the training sequence by the LMS criterion due to the fact that the hard decision of the decoder does not exist at the first iteration. Therefore, the DDFE structure behaves as a linear equalizer fed by the training sequence at the first iteration.
4. Simulation Results
We have presented multilevel turbo codes scheme with CPFSK modulation, and joint multilevel turbo equalization scheme with CPFSK modulation in this paper. MLTC-CPFSK design compensates the requirement of large frame size and high iteration number to obtain low BER at low SNR for turbo codes by adding complexity and slight latency due to the multistage structure. As shown in Figure 7, MLTC-CPFSK model achieves BER performance at the third iteration when SNR equals to 3 dB and 3.7 dB for AWGN and Rician channels, respectively. When we compared our model with the well-known multilevel coded CPFSK and TTCM schemes in the literature, we observed important coding gains with the simulation results. Furthermore, low-complexity DDFE equalizer was designed and its good interference cancellation performance was presented against LE and DFE equalizers. Eventually, satisfactory performance results for MLTEQ-CPFSK scheme is demonstrated for severe ISI channels.
- Berrou C, Glavieux A, Thitimajshima P: Near Shannon limit error-correcting coding and decoding: turbo-codes (1). Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC '93), May 1993, Geneva, Switzerland 1064-1070.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Papke L, Fazel K: Combined multilevel turbo-code with MR-modulation. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Communication (ICC '95), June 1995, Seattle, Wash, USA 2: 668-672.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Divsalar D, Pollara F: Multiple turbo codes. Proceedings of IEEE Military Communications Conference (MILCOM '95), November 1995, San Diego, Calif, USA 1: 279-285.Google Scholar
- Robertson P, Wörz T: Bandwidth-efficient turbo trellis-coded modulation using punctured component codes. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 1998, 16(2):206-218. 10.1109/49.661109View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Blackert WJ, Wilson SG: Turbo trellis coded modulation. Proceedings of the Conference on Information Signals and System (CISS '96), March 1996, Princeton, NJ, USAGoogle Scholar
- Wachsmann U, Fischer RFH, Huber JB: Multilevel codes: theoretical concepts and practical design rules. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1999, 45(5):1361-1391. 10.1109/18.771140View ArticleMathSciNetMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bayat O, Shafai B, Ucan ON: Iterative equalization of frequency selective channels. Proceedings of IEEE/Sarnoff Symposium on Advances in Wired and Wireless Communication, April 2005, Princeton, NJ, USA 33-36.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Naraghi-Pour M: Trellis codes for 4-ary continuous phase frequency shift keying. IEEE Transactions on Communications 1993, 41(11):1582-1587. 10.1109/26.241735View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Altunbas I, Aygolu U: Multilevel coded CPFSK systems for AWGN and fading channels. IEEE Transactions on Communications 2000, 48(5):764-773. 10.1109/26.843189View ArticleMATHGoogle Scholar
- Bayat O, Shafai B, Ucan ON: Reduced state equalization of multilevel turbo coded signals. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP '05), March 2005, Philadelphia, Pa, USA 3: 705-708.Google Scholar
- Osman O, Ucan ON, Odabasioglu N: Performance of multilevel turbo codes with group partitioning over satellite channels. IEE Proceedings: Communications 2005, 152(6):1055-1059. 10.1049/ip-com:20059063View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Odabasioglu N, Ucan ON: Multilevel turbo coded-continuous phase frequency shift keying (MLTC–CPFSK). Computers & Electrical Engineering. In pressGoogle Scholar
- Rimoldi BE: A decomposition approach to CPM. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 1988, 34(2):260-270. 10.1109/18.2634View ArticleMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
- Proakis JG: Digital Communications. 4th edition. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA; 2000.Google Scholar
- Bayat O, Hisham A, Ucan ON, Osman O: Performance of turbo coded signals over fading channels. Journal of Electrical & Electronics Engineering 2002, 2(1):417-422.Google Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.