- Research Article
- Open Access
Millimeter-Wave Ultra-Wideband Six-Port Receiver Using Cross-Polarized Antennas
© Nazih Khaddaj Mallat et al. 2009
- Received: 19 January 2009
- Accepted: 3 July 2009
- Published: 24 August 2009
This paper presents a new low-cost millimeter-wave ultra-wideband (UWB) transceiver architecture operating over V-band from 60 to 64 GHz. Since the local oscillator (LO) power required in the operation of six-port receiver is generally low (compared to conventional one using diode mixers), the carrier recovery or LO synchronization is avoided by using second transmission path and cross-polarized antennas. The six-port model used in system simulation is based on -parameters measurements of a rectangular waveguide hybrid coupler. The receiver architecture is validated by comparisons between transmitter and receiver bit sequences and bit error rate results of 500 Mb/s pseudorandom QPSK signal.
- Federal Communication Commission
- Hybrid Coupler
- Advance Design System
- Unlicensed Spectrum
- QPSK Signal
Due to a rapid growth of high-speed wireless technologies, new wireless systems at home and corporate environment are expected to emerge in the near future. This increasing interest for ultra-high-speed wireless connectivity has pushed the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to provide new opportunities for unlicensed spectrum usage with fewer restrictions on radio parameters. The Ultra-Wideband (UWB) technology, proposed for high-speed short-range applications, used both the occupied and unoccupied spectrum across the 3.1–10.6 GHz band. Conventional microwave UWB technology (3.1–10.6 GHz band) is one of the most active focus areas in academia, industry, and regulatory circles. Because of the power spectral density limitations ( dBm/MHz), the microwave UWB overlays existing wireless services (GPS, PCS, Bluetooth, and IEEE 802.11 WLANs) without significant interferences. Compared to this low-frequency range UWB technology, 60 GHz millimeter-wave communications will operate in the currently unlicensed spectrum (57–64 GHz), where the oxygen absorption limits a long-distance interference [1–6].
The multiport quadrature down-conversion has been demonstrated to provide an innovative approach to the design of high-speed and low-cost wireless systems. It is known that millimeter-wave technology enables the design of compact and low-cost wireless transceivers which can permit convenient terminal mobility up to Gb/s data-rates. Various millimeter-wave front-end architectures, fabrication technologies, simulations, and measurements based on multiport have been proposed and developed in recent years [7–11]. In , it was demonstrated that the six-port mixer is less sensitive to the LO signal power variations than its conventional counterpart using antiparallel diodes.
In order to avoid tedious carrier recovery or expensive millimeter-wave local oscillator synchronization techniques, and due to the specific six-port properties , we propose, in this work, a new low-cost homodyne receiver architecture. Since the six-port receiver does not require a high LO power to fulfill the millimeter-wave receiver task, both reference (LO) and modulated radio-frequency (RF) signals can be transmitted through cross-polarized antennas . In order to validate this proposed approach, a set of system simulations are performed. For creating more realistic results, the six-port model used in these simulations is based on the actual -parameters measurements of a wideband hybrid coupler, using the rectangular waveguide technology (RWG). In the first part, the measurement results of a V-band hybrid coupler and the simulation results of the proposed six-port model based on previous measurements are presented. Furthermore, a communication link has been simulated using a 500 Mb/s quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) modulated signal.
2.1. Hybrid Coupler Measurements
All of the four ports allow access by the standard WR-12 flanges connected to the measurement equipment. The -parameters of the WR-12 coupler are measured using the Agilent Technologies 60–90 GHz millimeter-wave power network analyser (PNA, model E8362B).
2.2. Six-Port Simulation
Following the mathematical equations discussed in [7, 8], the coupling factor of the six-port should be around dB (one-quarter power or 25%). This difference in value is related to the fact that, due to the fabrication errors in the RWG coupler, the coupling factor obtained is [ to ] dB (see Figure 2). Theoretically, this should be dB for the coupler itself. This coupling factor mismatch will not affect the demodulator process since the phases between the outputs ports are shifted by multiple of 90° as shown in Figure 5, and this is the important criteria for our receiver demodulator.
According to [7, 8], in order to obtain the dc output signals, four power detectors are connected to the six-port outputs. The down-converted signals are obtained using a differential approach, as shown in (1), where K is a constant, (In-phase/Quadrature-phase) signals, V 1 to V 4 are the multiport output detected signals, a is the amplitude of the LO signal, is the instantaneous phase difference, and α (t) is the instantaneous amplitude ratio between the RF and LO signals:
As detailed in [7, 8], for a six-port down-converter, the output magnitude voltage differences ( ) and ( ) are related to , outputs signals, respectively. Figure 8 shows a phase difference of approximately 180° between and , and also between and , as required. In addition, around 90° phase difference is obtained between quadrature outputs.
Since the free space loss increases quadratically with operating frequency, the V-band frequencies are dedicated to very short-range wireless communications (up to 10 m).
In a previous publication , demodulation results were presented for a millimeter wave homodyne receiver based on a six-port down-convertor, considering a perfect synchronism. Signal processing techniques were used to synchronize the reference signal using a feedback from the signal processing circuit to the millimeter-wave LO. Moreover, a carrier recovery process in a V-band millimeter wave six-port heterodyne receiver has been presented in , and a typical analog carrier recovery circuit was proposed in  for a QPSK modulation through an homodyne architecture.
However, these techniques are relatively expensive and also reduce the maximum bit-rate, due to the analog to digital conversion and signal processing algorithms.
As is known, if both antennas have the same polarization, the angle between their radiated E-fields is zero, and there is no power loss due to polarization mismatch. The polarization loss factor (PLF) or polarization mismatch loss (PML) will characterize the power loss due to the polarization mismatch. The PLF loss factor dictates what portion of the incident power is captured by the receiver antenna. This is often less than unity and depends on the angle between the transmitted signal polarization and the receiver antenna polarization. In our case, two pairs of transmitting/receiving antennas are vertically and, respectively, horizontally polarized. Hence, the angle between the antennas is 90°, and no power will be transferred between more than two antennas in the same time. In fact, the six-port circuit is an RF six-port interferometer with a variety of architectures consisting of power dividers, couplers, and phase shifters. These RF components are interconnected in such a way that four different vector sums of reference signal and signal to be directly measured (or down-converted) are produced. Magnitude and phase of unknown signal are determined from amplitudes of four output signals from interferometer. So, the relative rotation between the transmitting and the receiving antennas will not affect our goal. The RF and LO signals are received on ports 5 and 6 of the six-port, respectively. If the antennas are rotated, we still may receive the two signals but on reverse ports (RF on port 6 and LO on port 5), since the transmitting and receiving antennas are cross-polarized.
System simulations are performed using ADS, in order to validate the proposed architecture. During these simulations, we tried to get close as much as we can to the realistic properties of each component. For this reason, we have considered a PLF factor for the antennas, six-port based on coupler measurements results, amplifiers with acceptable gains, and the diodes spice models for the power detectors. The LO and RF transmitted signal powers are set at 10 dBm, and the antenna gains are 10 dBi. Since the antennas are cross-polarized, a PLF value of dB is used in the simulations. This PLF value is commonly considered for cross-polarized antennas with a similar gain (10 dBi). A loss-link model based on the Friis equation is used to simulate the signal propagation over a distance d of 10 m. The free loss at 61 GHz is 88 dB; it is calculated using the Friis transmission equation in (2):
where is the power received by the receiving antenna, and is the power input to the transmitting antenna. and are the antenna gain of the transmitting and receiving antennas, respectively, λ is the wavelength (around 5 mm for 60 GHz), and R is the distance (10 m).
The ADS-based receiver model is composed of the six-port model constructed on the measurement results of the RWG 90° hybrid coupler, two pairs of cross-polarized antennas, four power detectors, low-noise amplifiers (LNAs), millimeter-wave amplifiers A2, and baseband amplifiers A3 (gains of 5 dB, 25 dB, and 30 dB, resp.) and low pass filters (LPF). The sample-and-hold circuits (SHCs) and the limiters are used to obtain a clearly demodulated constellation (without the transitions between consecutive states). The two antennas are in unobstructed free space, with no multipath and considered as lossless and oriented for maximum response.
dBm (transmitted signal power defined by FCC for V-band communications systems ),
dBi (antenna gain),
dB (path loss calculated using (2)),
dBi (antenna gain),
dB (LNA gain),
dB (A2 gain).
In this paper, a class of new low-cost six-port homodyne receiver architectures has been presented and demonstrated at millimeter-wave frequencies. Cross-polarized antennas are used at both transmitter and receiver in order to easily solve the severe LO synchronism problem in V-band. So as to obtain realistic system simulation results, the proposed millimeter-wave UWB six-port receiver model is based on measurements of a fabricated V-band RWG hybrid coupler. Even with the presence of some errors due to fabrication errors, the proposed receiver architecture validates excellent demodulation results in a band of 4 GHz [60–64 GHz]. ADS simulations are performed to analyse the proposed six-port architecture.
As demonstrated in this paper, this wireless proposed system is able to transmit 500 Mb/s data-rate with a BER of 10-9 up to 10 m range, as required for the wireless HDTV (High-Definition TV) specifications in indoor communications. It enables the design of high-performance, compact, and low-cost wireless millimeter-wave communication receivers for future high-speed wireless communication systems.
The authors gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the "Fonds Québécois de la Recherche sur la Nature et les Technologies, FQRNT/NATEQ."
- FCC , et al.: First report and order. February 2002., (FCC 02-48):Google Scholar
- Porcino D, Hirt W, et al.: Ultra-wideband radio technology: potential and challenges ahead. IEEE Communications Magazine 2003, 41(7):66-74. 10.1109/MCOM.2003.1215641View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Molisch AF, Foerster JR, Pendergrass M: Channel models for ultrawideband personal area networks. IEEE Wireless Communications 2003, 10(6):14-21. 10.1109/MWC.2003.1265848View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smulders P: Exploiting the 60 GHz band for local wireless multimedia access: prospects and future directions. IEEE Communications Magazine 2002, 40(1):140-147. 10.1109/35.978061View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Cabric D, Chen MSW, Sobel DA, Wang S, Yang J, Brodersen RW: Novel radio architectures for UWB, 60 GHz, and cognitive wireless systems. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 2006, Article ID 17957, 2006:-18.Google Scholar
- Park C, Rappaport TS: Short-range wireless communications for next-generation networks: UWB 60 GHz millimeter-wave wpan, and ZigBee. IEEE Wireless Communications 2007, 14(4):70-78.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tatu SO, Moldovan E, Wu K, Bosisio RG, Denidni TA: Ka-band analog front-end for software-defined direct conversion receiver. IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques 2005, 53(9):2768-2776.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tatu SO, Moldovan E: V-band multi-port heterodyne receiver for high-speed communication systems. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 2007, Article ID 34358, 2007:-7.Google Scholar
- Moldovan E, Tatu SO, Affes S: A 60 GHz multi-port front-end architecture with integrated phased antenna array. Microwave and Optical Technology Letters 2008, 50(5):1371-1376. 10.1002/mop.23367View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mallat NK, Tatu SO: Carrier recovery loop for millimeter-wave heterodyne receiver. Proceedings of the 24th Biennial Symposium on Communications (BSC '08), June 2008 239-242.Google Scholar
- Mallat NK, Tatu SO: Six-port receiver in millimeter-wave systems. Proceedings of IEEE International Conference on Systems, Man and Cybernetics, October 2007, Montreal, Canada 2693-2697.Google Scholar
- Mallat NK, Moldovan E, Tatu SO: Comparative demodulation results for six-port and conventional 60 GHZ direct conversion receivers. Progress in Electromagnetics Research 2008, 84: 437-449.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Mallat NK, Moldovan E, Wu K, Tatu SO: High data rate cross-polarized millimeter-wave transmission link. In Global Symposium on Millimeter Waves (GSMM '09), April 2009. Katahira Sakura Hall, Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan;Google Scholar
- Tatu SO, Moldovan E, Wu K, Bosisio RG: A rapid carrier recovery loop for direct conversion receivers. Proceedings of Radio and Wireless Conference (RAWCON '03), August 2003 159-162.Google Scholar
- Razavi B: Gadgets gab at 60 GHz. IEEE Spectrum 2008, 45(2):46-49.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.